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Crosse and Tyrwhitt University Scholar^ and Hebrew and Divinity 

Lecturer of Corpus Christi College, 






/■ 7^^- 









On the Language of the New Testament ... 

On the causes of Various Readings, and the ) 
chief Aids in Correcting the Text ( 

The Printed Editions of the New Testament 

The Origin of the Gospels 

The Gospel according to S. Mark 

The Text and Notes 


On the Meaning of the term ' Brethren of Jesus * 

On the Difficulties connected with the Last Supper 

On the Genuineness of the Passage (xvi. 9—20) 

On the Chronology of the Gospel 

The Chief Events of the Gospel, arranged ) 
in Chronological order ) 

Table of Money, Weights, and Measures 

Genealogy of the Herod Family 


V— xi 

Xi— 3BCV 

XXV— xxxi 
xxxi — XXXV 

XXXV— xliii 








XX. line 13, for Diarbek, r, Diarbekr. 
xxxviii. ... 1 1, y^ probable, r. probably. 
xxxix. ... 2, instead of (AoBJ^, r. de viris illustribns. 
xlii. 7 lines from bottom, for TcuBSiBey, r, Tculk6$€P, 

16. in 1st coL of Notes, 16 lines from bot r, 32 miles £. and 18 W. 

17. in Notes to ver. 11, for middle, r. indie 



On the Language of the New Testament. 

No one can read the New Testament attentively, without 
seeing that its language and style diflfer very widely from the 
language or style of ordinary Greek authors, and this difference 
prevails to such an extent, both in words and constructions, 
that it cannot be explained by referring it to the alterations 
continually taking place in all tongues, during the lapse of 
centuries. The English of Shakespere is not the English spoken 
by us; but the English of Shakespere is almost all of it 
intelligible to ordinary persons now ; and I conceive that good 
English prose of our day, might without much difficulty be 
understood by a well informed person of the Elizabethan age. 
Such is not the case with regard to ordinary Greek, and the 
language of the New Testament. With the exception of 
S. Luke and S. Paul, probably no New Testament writer would 
have been able to understand a page of Demosthenes, and 
certainly an educated Greek gentleman of the third century 
B. c would have had great difficulty in making out the meaning 
of a chapter of any Gospel or Epistle : the illustration borrowed 
from the Shakesperian age is all the more convenient,* because 
between Theocritus the latest Greek writer usually read in 
schools, who flourished in the early part of the third century 
before Christ, and the time of our Lord, there elapsed almost 
the same interval as has elapsed between the publication of 
Shakespere's best known plays, and the year in which we live. 



How then can we explain the great difference between the 
language, in which the New Testament writers were inspired 
to compose, and the Greek spoken in the time of Pericles ? 
Chiefly in the first place through the conquests of Alexander 
the Great, and in the second place, through the wide spread rule 
of the Romans. The Macedonian supremacy diffused the 
knowledge of Greek, over the greater part of the then known 
world, just as the British rule diflfused the knowledge of 
English in our colonies and settlements, and by the time that 
the Roman power began to make head, and take the chief place ; 
the language, generally disfigured and distorted into a patois^ 
had become so widely known, that it formed the most 
convenient means of communication. By Cicero's time it 
had become requisite, that every well-educated lad should be 
taught Greek, and by the time of Christ, Greek was well 
understood at Rome, even by the lower classes. 

Now as we find by experience in the case of English, that the 
wide prevalence of a language does not tend to preserve its 
purity, so it was with the Greek tongue. The jargon of broken 
English spoken by the Negroes in America, is a very different 
thing from the same language as spoken by educated English- 
men, and we may well believe that the language of a well 
educated Athenian of the first century of the Christian era, 
differed very much from the Greek spoken at Jerusalem: 
though in this case the difference would not be so great, because 
by this time the states of Greece had been thoroughly subdued, 
and Roman laws, Roman idioms, and Roman usages prevailed 
all over the country. 

The subject is one that once excited considerable interest, 
and has received a thorough investigation at the hands of many ; 
among others, of Thiersch in his book, De Pmtateuchi Versione 
Alexandrina, Hence in the brief epitome about to be pre- 
sented, we shall be travelling over ground already well trodden, 
and can lay no claim to originality even in the examples 
quoted. It must also be remembered that ordinary printed 
editions of the New Testament are accommodated, in many cases, 


to classical usage, so that the examples quoted, will not always 
be found in them : but some critical edition should be consulted, 
as Tischendorf s 7th (smaller) edition, or Scrivener's reprint of 
Stephens' text 

The points in which the Greek of the New Testament differs 
from that of classical authors, may be defined as (i) differences 
of vocabulary, (2) differences of construction, 

(i) Differences of Vocabulary. 

This head may be €ubdivided into (a) changes in ortho- 
graphy {$) changes in inflexion (y) Foreign words, 

(a) Changes in orthography : 

Before ^ and ^ in the verb Xofipdvio the ft is always retained 
e, g. we always find in the best MSS. Xrffi^jterai for X^^rcrac and so 
on (Jfassim), 

In verbs compounded with avv the » is retained before a 
consonant e.g. avvCn^ for avCni^ (2 Cor. vil 3). 

For €p€vyaT€ we find ipavvare (Joh. V. 39). 

For rta-a-apcLKOvra we find rtfTaepaKovra (Acts L 3 ; 2 Cor. xi. 


The V affixed to certain inflexions e,g. to 3d plur. indie, pres. 
of verbs, and called v i<li€\KV(mK6v is retained even before a 
consonant : and the same remark applies to the g of oSras. 

(i3) Charges in infleocum : 

(i) Nouns and verbs, receive entirely new inflexions : (2) 
many tenses are regularly inflected which were not in use 
before: (3) many forms are regularly used which previously 
were confined to a particular dialect 

To the first head belong : 

vo6i for vQv Rom. viL 23 d sape. 

vot for v^ Rom. vii. 25 (i Cor. passim). 

fjfjL€Oa for ^fi€v Matt xxiii. 30 (bis) : Acts xxviL 37. 

icdOov — Ka^a-o James ii 3 (bis.). 

The terminating of the 3rd plur. in -av where the older lan- 
guage used-ao-i: as tyvtuKov ior lyv&KaxTi John xviL 7 : or-ovas 
r[K6a» for rlKBov Mark vi. 29 : and the frequent omission of the 


To the second head belongs 

tnl^tn for av^a»tii Eph. ii 21 ; Col. ii. 19. 
To the third head belong : 

The Z>oric forms jfrto for ^or© : i Cor, xvi. 22 ; James v. 

1 2 : a^cicoifrat for a^etproi, Matt IX, 2. et S<Bpe. 
The Ionic etwa, etwe {passim). 
The AtHcriBeatri^ Matt V. 15 : ^/SwX^^y, 2 John 12. 

(y) Foreign words : 

The following lists will be found neafly, if not quite, 

complete : 

Hebrew or Aramaic words : 

*APaBdmvy Greek dnoKkvov, Rev. ix.11. 

*APBay Mark xvi 36 ; Rom. viii. 15 ; Gal. iv. 6. 

^Afirjv, passim. 

*ApfjLay€dciv, Rev. xvL 1 6. 

PetXCepovp OT-pov\ never out of first three Gospels. 

/SeXuiX, or Peklapy 2 Cor. vi 15. 

PoaP€f)y€s, Mark iii. 17. 

TafiPaBd, John xix. 13. 

TcWa, frequently in 5ie Synoptists. 

TeSoTffjLojnj, Matt xxvL 36 ; Mark xiv. 32, 

roXyo^o, Matt xxvii. 33 ; Mark xv. 22 ; John xix. 17, 

'EXcot, 'EXwt, \afifia (rafiaxOavi^ Matt XXvii. 46 ; Mark XV. 34. 

*Eflxf>add, Mark vii. 34. 

KopPSvy Kopfiams, Matt. xxviL 6 ; Mark viL 11. 

udo-xoy frequently in the Gospels. 

'FaBfii, frequently in the Gospels. 

'PaPPovt and *Pa^/3ow/, Mark x. 51 ; John xx. 16. 

2appaTov, passim, 

^aravdfy passim, 

^Uepa, Luke L 15. 

TaXft^^ Kovfiiy Mark v. 41. 

'Qo-avvdy Matt xxL 9. 15 ; Mark xL 9, 10 ; John xii. 13. 

Besides several proper names such as *EfifjLa»ovrik, ^abdw- 

KMOiy ^apurcuoi. 

Persian words : 

dyyap€v<Oy Matt V. 41 ; Mark xv. 21. 

ydCa, Acts viii. 27. 

Mayor, Matt ii I, 7, 16 ; Acts xiii 6, 8. 

Jlapadeicrosy Luke xxiii 43 ; 2 Cor. xii 4 ; Rev. ii. 7. 

Coptic word : 

Patop, John xii 13. 


Latin words : 

d<r(rdptov, Matt X. 29 ; Luke xiL 6. 

^fjvdpioVf passitn, 

K€PTvpuop, Mark xv. 39, 44, 45. 

lajvavsy Matt xvii 25 ; xxii, 17, 19 ; Mark xii. 14. 

KodpaPTTis, Matt V. 26 ; Mark xiL 42 

KoKfdvuiy Acts xvi. 12. 

Kovar€i>dUy Matt xxviL 65^ 66 ; xxviiL 1 1. 

Kpdpparog, frequently. 

\€y€tMfy Matt xxvL S3 ; Mark v. 9, 15 ; Luke viil 30. 

\4vTiov, John xiii 4, 5. 

Xi^e/9T^c, Acts vi 9. 

luuceXKovy I Cor. X. 25. 

/ufiPpava, 2 Tim. iv. 13. 

nCKuiVy Matt V. 41. 

fuSdtof, Matt V. 15 ; Mark iv. 21 ; Luke xi. 33. 

fc(m;y, Mark viL 4, 8. 

frpaiTiopioyy frequently. 

aucapioSy Acts xxi 38. 

tniuKUfBiovj Acts xix. 12. 

(Tovbdpiov, Luke xix. 20 ; John xi. 44 ; xx. 7 ; Acts xix. 

tnr€Kov\ar»py Mark vL 27. 
ra&ipvaiy Acts xxviiL 15. 
Ttrkosy John xix. 19, 20. 
<l>cupdkrjsy 2 Tim. iv. 13. 
4^povj Acts xxviiL 15. 
^payeXKiopy John iL 15* 
^poyfXXdtf, Matt xxviL 26 ; Mark xv. 15. 

Among the above words I have not included t6 liciavhp 
froi^trcu, Mark XV. 15, which is clearly a Latinism, satisfacere: 
because it hardly falls within the definition of a Latin word, 

(2) Differences of construction : 

We almost entirely miss in the New Testament that rich 
variety of subordinate propositions expressed by particles, by 
oraHo ohliqua^ by participles, or by infinitive moods, for which 
the classical tongues are so famous. Particles are very rarely 
employed. The writers prefer breaking up their thoughts into 
a number of short co-ordinate sentences, to placing them in 
one long sentence with the principal thought for the subject 
and the rest arrayed in subordinate clauses. 


The divergences under this head may be classed as 
follows : — (a) Peculiarities of constraction generally : (d) Pecu- 
liar constractions with particles : (c) Hebraisms. 

(a) Peculiarities of construction generally : 

The genitive of the infinitive mood is used in a very wide 
sense, far beyond its usual limits; cf. Matt xxi. 32; <w ftcre- 

fjLeXrfOrjre C(TT€pov rov inaTtvcrcu avr^ I and Luke XviL I. avivb€KT6v 
fOTi rod fi^ iXOfLV r^ cncapdaXo. 

The subjunctive mood is used in the historical style after 
particles where we should expect the optative ; e. g.-duartCkaTo 

...iva fiiydevi €?7r»(rty, Matt XvL 20 ; napriyyeiKep avrois iva 

fijjdev atjpaxriv, Mark vi. 8. 

The optative mood is very rarely employed. 
The dual number is never found. 

The nominative case with the definite article is used instead 
of the vocative (which latter is very seldom found) : cf. Luke 

viii. S4j 4 "■<*** iyeipov I 

Verbs govern unusual cases ; thus we find y€V€tr6cu. followed 
by an accusative, John ii 9 ; iyeva-aro t6 iTdwp : and perhaps 
Heb. vi 5? ytvcaiicvovs Q«ov prjfui I and irpotncvpehf followed by 
a dative very frequently. 

(d) Peculiar constructions with particles: 

In this division are seen some of the most startling diver- 
gences from classic usage ; we find 

ciwith the subjunctive: Luke ix. 13; Phil, iii 12; 

I Thess. V. 10. 
tva with the indicative /r«f^.- i Cor. iv. 6; Gal. iv. 17 ; 

vi. 12. 
5ray with the indicative imperfect : Mark iii. 1 1, and 

aorist; Rev. viiL i. 

(c) Hebraisms : 

The Apocalypse more than any other book abounds in 
these; but they are tolerably frequent throughout the New 
Testament « 

The Hebrew way of denoting emphasis by repetition is 
sometimes found, e, g, Mark vi 39. avfi7r6cria avftir6a'ta^ and 40 

TTpaaiai irpcuriaL . 


We also have the Hebraisms nopevav els elprfvrfv lech Ishaw- 
lawm, Luke vil 50; viil 48 ; and cmrjKBov irpbs iavrovs vayaykku 
lawheniy John xx. 10. 

Literal translations from the Aramaic dialept which has no 
case endings to the nomis, have caused such Hebraisms as 
&pKoy 8v accusative, in apposition to the genitive StaBriKJis 6yias 

Luke L 72, 73 ; and x^^^ V^ ^^^^ tlpipni airh rov 6 cSr, Koi 6 tjv^ 
Koi 6 €px^i*€vos' Rev. i. 4, 

On the Causes of Various Readings, and the chief 

AIDS in correcting THE TeXT. 

Every one must have heard something about various read- 
ings, spurious passages, and unauthentic additions to the text of 
the Scriptures, and must have noticed how widely one edition of 
the Greek Testament differs from another. We purpose in 
these remarks to consider : first, the causes from which such 
variations spring, and secondly, the means used to restore the 
text as nearly as possible to its original purity. 

It is impossible while performing any task, always to keep 
the attention rigidly and unalterably fixed : hence in a work 
requiring such constant attention and rigid accuracy as the 
transcribing of a MS., numerous errors always arise from these 

The scribe ?ieard, if writing from dictation, or saw, wrongly, 
hence arise itacisms, or the mistaking of vowels and diphthongs 

of similar sound, as ryeipc for tyeipai : Xdere for €tb€T€ : ripi](rji for 

Tiprj(r€i : hence the mistaking of words only differing by one or 

two letters, e, g. avrjyytCkav and anifyy^CKav : TKafiop and €/3aXov 

or €pak\op ; hence too arises the loss of a clause by Homceote- 
leuton, when it ends with the same word as closed the preceding 
sentence ; e, g, the clause 6 6fioXoy»y rhv vXhv koX r6y narcpa ?x**> 

I John ii. 23, omitted because the preceding clause ended with 

ovUe rAy iraripa ?;^«. 


The scribe through oversight or faulty judgment admitted 
into the text words. that were originally a marginal note, e.g, 
the noted verse i John v. 7 ; or he admitted words which 
stood in the margin of the MSS. as headings near the beginning 
of the Church Lessons (wepiKonai). An excellent illustration of 
this may be seen by comparing several passages in the English 
Prayer Book, with the same passages in the Scriptures : thus the 
gospel for the third Sunday after Easter begins, /esus said to 
His disdpkSy but if we turn to John xvi. i6, we only find, 
A little while and ye shall not see Mcy &c; the first clause has 
been added to make the passage intelligible when read by 

Similarly in the Greek Text, we often find 'li/crovs and (Luke 
viL 31) €?fl-6 dc 6 Kvpcoff introduced without authority. Again the 
scribe admitted clauses and sentences in order to make a 
given passage harmonize more exactly with its parallel in 

another gospel : thus in Mark vi 11 the words ohl^v Xeyw 

Udvn have probably been introduced for the sake of harmony 
firom Matt x. 15. These are the sources fi-om which the most 
important variations in the text arise. Besides these, there are 
two passages whose authenticity is called in question which 
from their length, form a class by themselves, viz, Mark xvL 
9 — 16, and John vil 53 — ^viiL 11 : but a very strong case may 
be made out for the genuineness of each of these. Other 
sources of variation are not of such importance as those which 
we have enumerated, a fiill account of them may be found in 
Scrivener's Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Tes- 
lament, pp. 7 — 16, a work to which we are indebted for the 
information given, and in many cases for the examples quoted, 
in this article. It must be remembered, that three centuries ago, 
when the Greek text was formed firom which our English 
Version is made, criticism was very little understood, and many 
of the aids we are about to mention, were not known. 

The aids used in restoring the text are various, and may be 
classed as follows : — 

External evidence, or the results arrived at by comparing 


matmscripts, whether uncial written in capital letters, br cursive 
written in running hand : or by consulting the most ancient 
versions of the Scriptures, or by examining the quotations vf^nch 
pccur in the writings of different Fathers, * 

The last class of external evidence, patristic citations, we 
shall not dwell upon, as it is not of great weight for more 
reasons than one. In the first place, the text of many patristic 
works is in a very unsettled and unsatisfactory state, so that 
it becomes impossible to use one passage, when the reading is 
doubtful, for the purpose of amending another. And where 
the Patristic text has been properly edited, it still remains in 
many cases, uncertain whether the Father is quoting the text 
verbatim^ or only alluding to it, and adapting its language to 
the thought in his mind, when composing the sermon or 
treatise where the words occur. 

Internal Evidence may be described as those probabilities 
connected with, and arising out of the text itself, in deciding 
upon which an editor is guided by tact and sagacity resulting 
from experience. We quote a few of these canons of criticism 
as they are called: most of them apply to the editing of 
other books besides the Scriptures. They are the rules felt, 
though perhaps not consciously, which guided classical 
scholars in restoring the text of the Greek dramatists. 

"The more difficult a reading is to understand, the more 
likely it is to be genuine." 

" That reading is to be preferred from which several others 
may have been derived, though it could not have been derived 
from any of them." 

"That reading is preferable which best suits the peculiar 
style, manner, and habits of thought of the author." 

"The usage of an authority must be attended to in 
assigning its due share of weight in a particular case." 

For instance, that a passage is omitted in Codex B. {see 
below) is no proof /^ se of its spuriousness, as it is well-known 
that that manuscript constantly omits clauses and verses: 
while, that a passage is inserted in Codex D. is no proof 



per se of its genuineness, since that MS. constantly interpolates 
whole sections of two and three verses long. 

These are a few of the most weighty reasons which tend to 
influence an editor in deciding upon the value of a reading; 
where the authority of external evidence is almost evenly 
balanced: they are to be felt and appreciated by long habit 
rather than received as arbitrary laws. We proceed to give an 
account of some of the best Manuscripts and Versions which 
from their age, completeness, or other causes, have acquired a 
history of their own, appending the mark by which each is 
denoted in critical notes; full lists and accounts of these matters 
will be foimd in Scrivener's work quoted above, (pp. 76 — 282). 

Uncial Manuscripts, always denoted by capital letters, are 
written in separate unconnected capital letters with no space 
between the words, hardly any marks of punctuation, and 
originally few breathings or accents. The best way of 
deciding upon their age, is by the character of the handwriting,* 
the plainer, squarer, and more upright that is, the older is the 
MS. In later specimens the letters become more ornamented, 
compressed, and sloping. The age of a MS. may also be 
estimated by its appearance, the number of times that it has been 
corrected, and the number of columns on each page. The uncial 
MSS. of the Scriptures now in existence, range in date from the 
fourth, to the eleventh century. 

Codex Sinaiticus marked by Tischendoif its discoverer^ 
by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet al^A, occupies the 
first place both in respect of age and completeness, as it dates 
from the fourth century and contains the w^le of the New 
Testament, besides the greater portion of the LXX. version q^. 
the Old Testament, the epistie of Barnabas, and part of the 
Shepherd bi Hermas. Written with four columns on each page, 
an arrangement almost unique and pointing to great antiquity. 
Its existence was first made known to Europeans by Tischen- 
dorf, who picked some leaves of the MS. out of a basket of 
waste paper, destined to light the oven fire in the convent of 
S. Catharine on Mount Sinai; this was in 1844. Tischendorf 


returned in 1853 hoping to find some more of the. same MS. 
but the monks, made aware of its value would give no further 
information. At length in 1859 when travelling under the 
patronage of the Emperor of Russia, he managed by something 
like a ruse, to get the MS. to Cairo, and eventually was allowed 
to present it to the Emperor, by whose command a facsimile 
edition has been published. The history of this MS. curious 
as it is, has been rendered still more interesting on account of 
a claim put in by Dr. Simonides, in which he asserts that hs was 
the writer of the MS, in question, which would thus be only about 
thirty years old. A fiill account of the controversy and of the 
reasons which seem to show that Dr. Simonides is mistaken in 
the date he assigns to the MS. and the claim to the authorship 
he puts in, is contained in the preface to Scrivener's Full collation 
of the SinaiHc MS. with the received text of the New Testament, 

Codex B. or Codex Vaticanus a celebrated MS, in the 
Vatican library at Rome, of the fourth century : written with 
three columns on each page. Its omissions are so numerous 
that some have gone so far as to say, that it presents an 
abbreviated text of the New Testament : unfortunately this MS. 
has never been thoroughly collated, so that its value to the 
critical student is not nearly so great as it might be. The book 
was brought into the Vatican library soon after it was estab- 
lished, by Pope Nicholas V. in the earUer half of the fifteenth 
century. Some suppose that Cardinal Bessarion a learned 
Greek brought it from Constantinople, when that city, was 
sacked by the Turks. The following portions of the Bible are 
wanting : of the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, the first 
46 chapters of Genesis, and Psalms 105 — 137 : of the New 
Testament, from Heb. ix. 14. to the end of the epistle, — ^the 
epistles to Timothy, Titus, and Philemon, and the Apocalypse. 
No use seems to have been made of the manuscript before the 
lime of Erasmus. Since his day it has been collated several 
times, partially, and imperfectly: lately when a scholar-like 
edition might have been hoped for, it has been found that a 
^stem of jealous exclusion has sprung up at the Vatican, in 


consequence of which it is hardly possible for any one not in 
the confidence of the Papal authorities even to see the MS. 

Codex A. or Codex Alexandrinus, in the British Museum^ 
of the fifUi centuiy : written with two columns to each page ; 
it contains the Septuagint version of the Old Testament almost 
complete; in the New Testament, S. Matthew's gospel is 
wanting up to xxv, 6, and so are John vi. 50— viiL 52 and 2 Cor. 
iv, 13 — JoL 6. At the end of the book is the only extant copy 
of the first or genuine epistle of Clement of Rome to the 
Corinthians. The book was sent in the year 1628 by Cyril 
Lucar patriarch of Constantinople as a present to King Charles 
L It remained amongst the king's private collection until 1 753, 
when it was placed in the Library of the British Museum on its 
being formed. The MS. has been often collated: the New 
Testament portion was edited in 1786 by Woide, the Old 
Testament in 18 16, by the Rev. Henry Hervey Baber. 

Codex C. or Codex Ephraemi of the fifth century : in the 
Imperial library at Paris, written with one column on each 
page : contains portions of the LXX version, and fragments of 
every part of the New Testament, amounting to nearly two thirds 
of the whole book. Some centuries after the parchment had 
been covered with the Scriptures, it was scraped to make way 
for the writings of S. Ephraem, a great Syrian father of the 
fourth century: a practice by no means uncommon, when 
materials for writing upon were scarce and dear. Hence such 
MSS, are called palimpsest^ {nakiv ^a«). The marks of the 
older writing may be seen and deciphered with great difficulty. 
The MS. seems to have been brought from the East in the early 
part of the i6th century, by Andrew Lascar a learned Greek, 
patronised by the Medici family, and sent on the fall of the 
eastern Empire to recover any valuable books he could from 
the ravages of the Turks. It was brought into France by 
Queen Catharine de Medici, and thus passed into the Imperial 
Library. Tischendorf published an edition of it in 1843 — 5. 

Codex D or Codex Bezae of the sixth century, in the 
University Library at Cambridge. It contains the four Gospels 


and Acts with verses wanting in many places. On each left- 
hand page of the open volume there is one colmnn of Greek : 
on each right-hand page one column of Latin. Beza sent it as 
a present to the University of Cambridge in 1581, having 
procured it in 1562 from the monastery of S. Irenaeus at Lyons. 
The city was sacked in that year, and it is probable that some 
one who had been present at the plundering took the book to 
Beza, his influence being very great among the Huguenots. It 
was edited by Kipling in 1793, at the expense of the University, 
and recently by Scrivener. The scribe seems to have been 
ignorant of Greek, and probably it was written not far from the 
place where it was found. There are numerous unauthentic 
interpolations, and constant deviations from the received text 
Altogether it ranks far below the five MSS. already described. 

These are the principal MSS. containing the Gospels, there are 
many others but they axe either so very fragmentary or of such 
very recent date, that it is not worth while to give a description 
of them here. 

There are however two other uncial MSS. which seem to 
require a brief notice, viz : — 

Codex D or Codex Claromontanus (of the latter part of 
the sixth century), which must not be confused with the D pre- 
viously described. It is a copy in Greek and Latin of S. Paul's 
Epistles, in the Imperial Library at Paris : written with one 
column on each page : as in Codex Bezse the Greek stands on 
the left-hand page of the open volume, the Latin on the right 
It belonged to Beza, who says it was found in the monastery 
at Clermont near Beauvais. At his death it passed into the 
possession of the du Puy family, one of whom was the Royal 
Librarian, and of him it was bought by Louis xiv. for the 
Library. Transcribed and published by Tischendorf in 1852. 

Codex E or Codex Laudianus of the latter part of the sixth 
or early part of the seventh century : contains the Acts. It is a 
Latin and Greek copy in the Bodleian at Oxford with two 
columns on each page; the Latin in the left-hand column. 
The manuscript was probably brought to England by Theodore 


of Tarsus, who came to this country as Abp. of Canterbury in 
A. D. 668. Abp. Laud gave it to the University of Oxford in 
1636, It has not yet been edited. 

The cursive MSS. of the Scriptures, written as we write 
with the letters of each word joined, usually denoted by Arabic 
niunerals, are very numerous indeed, and many of them are very 
valuable although they have not hitherto received much 
attention from critics, they range in date from the ninth or 
tenth centuiy down to the time when printing became common. 
A well written cursive will often represent an uncial of much 
older date and very high character, and in that case is more 
valuable for critical purposes than a late uncial It would 
occupy too much space without any adequate benefit, to attempt 
to give an account of the cursive MSS. we must therefore refer 
the reader to the work of Scrivener, quoted above (pp. 142 — 210. 
There are also extant, many copies of the Lectionaries or 
books of Church Lessons used in the Greek Church, consisting 
either of Evangelistaria lessons from the gospels, or Prax-^ 
apostoli lessons from the Acts. Some are in uncial, some in 
cursive character. The same remarks will apply to them that 
applied to the cursive MSS. 

Versions. In order that a version may be valuable for 
the purpose of revising the text, it must be one that keeps very 
dose to the original, in rendering and order of the words^ 
This is of the greatest moment, and consequently a version 
that is harsh and inelegant to the last degree, like the Old 
Latin, or Philoxenian Syriac, may be much more useful to the 
critic, than an excellent Version like the English Bible, that 
does not attempt to reproduce in its own language the idioms 
of the original. A version to be useful must, of course, have 
been made from the Greek, and from good MSS.; not from 
another version, or from MSS. of a debased type. 

The principal versions of the New Testament, are the 
following : — ^The Peshito Syriac, the Old Latin, the Curetonian 
S3rriac, the Egyptian, the Vulgate, the Philoxenian Syriac, the 
Gothic, the Armenian, and the ^Ethiopia These versions are 


all that are valuable for criticism, and we have enumerated 
them according to the rank which their value gives them. 
There are, besides some minor Syriac versions, the Georgian, 
the Slavonic, the Arabic, the Persic, and the Anglo-Saxon ; 
which being either very fiagmentary, or of very late date, need 
not be described : and indeed, from the scanty attention which 
Oriental languages receive from English scholars, the only old 
versions much known or appreciated in this country, are the 
Latin and Syriac versions. 

The Syriac Versions : 

The Peshito (syr) is the most ancient and valuable of all 
the Syriac versions. That a version existed in Syriac in very early 
times, may be proved by the fact, that 6 2vpog is quoted by 
Melito, Bishop of Sardis, in a. d. 170, as nothing uncommon. 
This version got its name probably from the ' simple^ intelligible 
style in which it is written. The first printed edition was that 
published in 1555 at the instance of Moses of Mardin, legate 
from the Monophysite patriarch Ignatius, to Pope Julius III. 
The Peshito does not contain the Catholic Epistles of Jude, 
2 Peter, 2 and j John, nor the Revelation ; this fact is a proof 
of its antiquity : nor has it the passage relating to the heavenly 
witnesses in i John v. 7 ; though Elias Hutter who published 
an edition in 1600, supplied this, and one or two other short 
passages, which the real Peshito omits, in Syriac of his own 
making. It was again printed in the Paris Polyglott, 1645, 
from which it was reprinted for Walton's Polyglott, London, 
1654. The edition now most accessible, is the New Testament 
edited by Dr. Lee in 181 6, for the Bible Society. 

The Curetonian Syriac {syf^). 

In 1842, Archdeacon Tattam brought over to England 
from the convent of S. Mary Deipara in the Nitrian Desert, 
four Syriac manuscripts, two of which were found to contain 
fragments oi iht four gospels. Dr. Cureton, then an officer in 
the British Museum, edited these, and published them in 1858. 
He strives to prove that this version is superior to the Peshito 
in point of antiquity ; an opinion which is warmly Opposed by 
some, and as wannly espoused by others. 


The Philoxenian Syriac (syr*) ranks somewhat lower than 
the Peshito and Curetonian in critical importance. It was made 
for XenaiaSy or Philoxenus, Monophysite Bishop of Mabug or 
Hierapolis, at the end of the fifth centmy, by Polycarp, rural 
bishop. This version, which does not contain the Apocalypse, 
was revised, and probably considerably altered by Thomas of 
Harkel, in a. d. 6i6. It was most likely made in order to give 
the reader some idea of what the Greek text was : it ranks far 
below the Peshito in point of merit ; words and constructions 
being violently altered to accommodate them to the Greek. 
Edited by the Oxford University, under the superintendence of 
Joseph White, at the end of the last century, firom MSS. sent over 
to Dr. Gloucester Ridley, fix)m Diarbek, by Samuel Palmer. 
The Jerusalem Syriac (syr*^ or syr""). 
This version contains a portion of the Gospels^ and exists 
only in one MS. in the Vatican. It was made, as an inscription 
informs us, by Elias, a presbyter of Abydos, in the Monastery 
of the Abbot Moses, at Antioch, in a. d. 1030. It has been 
lately edited, with a Latin translation, by Erizzo. The name 
is derived from its extreme affinity for Chaldee. In fact, most 
of its constructions, and oddities of pointing, may be illustrated 
from the Targums, rather than fi-om genuine S3aiac documents. 
Akin to this, is a palimpsest fragment, brought by Tischen- 
dorf from the East, and described by him in Anecdocta sacra et 

The Carcaphensian Syriac 

Gregory Barhebraeus, a great Monophysite doctor of the 
thirteenth century, had mentioned this version, which gets its 
name either from being used by the Syrians of the ^^ mountains** 
or from Carcuf^ a town in Mesopotamia. Since nothing else 
was known of it, the learned concluded that he meant a 
separate revision, rather than a separate translation : but in the 
year 1828, the late Cardinal Wiseman published in Harm 
SyriaccBy an account of a MS. of this version, which he had 
discovered in the Vatican. It stands about midway between 
the Peshito and Philoxenian, being more elegant than the 


latter, and more literally accurate than the former. Wiseman 
often proposed to edit it, but never did so. 

The Latin Versions. 

The earliest version of the Scriptures in Latin, first saw the 
light, not as might have been expected, in Italy ; but in North 
Africa. This fact, rendered certain by the evidence accu- 
mulated by Cardinal Wiseman, as to the internal character 
of the version, and the occurrence in it of rare words and 
phrases not found in any writer before Tertullian — ^himself a 
native of North Afnca — ^becomes less astonishing when we 
remember that in Rome, at that time, Greek was well under- 
stood, even by the humblest classes — ^that the earliest Roman 
liturgy was in Greek — ^that the first i6 bishops of Rome 
bear Greek names — ^and that S. Paul wrote to Roman converts 
not in Latin, but in Greek. This version is called the Old 
Latin, marked in critical notes (it). The date cannot be fixed with 
certainty, but it must have been not much later than the end 
of the first century, as by the time of Tertullian — ^the latter 
half of the second — it was so well known, as to have 
influenced the popular language, and Christianity was widely 
spread in that region. The epistle of James, the second of 
Peter, and that to the Hebrews, seem to have been omitted. The 
books of the Old Testament were translated, not firom the 
Hebrew, but fi*om the LXX. By the end of the fourth century, 
the version had become very popular, and, having been never 
publicly revised, very corrupt In consequence, Jerome was 
requested by Pope Damasus, a. d, 383, to undertake the correc- 
tion of the text He began in the New Testament with the 
Gospels, which had suffered most ; in the Old Testament with 
the Psalter. His first revision of the Psalter not being very 
satisfiictory, he revised it a second time ; the former revision 
was called the Roman, the latter, the Gallican, Psalter. After 
the year 389. a.d., he retired to Bethlehem, improved his 
knowledge of Hebrew, and translated the whole of the Old 
Testament directly from that language. Hence arose the 
Vulgate. This new translation was received, at first, with 



great dislike, as the new translation, especially in the Old 
Testament, differed very much from the old, owing to the 
different original of which it was a rendering : but by degrees 
the new translation became as popular as the old, and by 
the close of the eighth century, was as corrupt as the Old Latin 
had ever been. This arose partly from the simultaneous use of 
the old and new translations. In the year 802, Alcuin was 
commissioned by Charlemagne to revise the text. This task 
he executed in as thorough a manner as could be expected in 
that age : the patronage of Charlemagne secured for the 
version a wide popularity, and little more was done for the text 
till the Council of Trent, A. D. 1546, when, in consequence of 
the high claims put forward by the Church of Rome, and the 
unsatisfactory state of the version, it again became necessary to 
make some attempt at revision. A Papal board was appointed, 
and after long delay, in the pontificate of Sixtus V. (1590), the 
Sixtine edition of the Vulgate (vg ■***•) was published, claiming 
in its preface " to be received and held as true, lawful, authen- 
" tic, and unquestioned, in all public and private discussion, 
"reading, preaching, and explanation." Since the numerous 
errors and glaring mistakes speedily discovered hardly warrant- 
ed this strong language : another revision had to be under- 
taken, and the Vulgate was finally published in 1592, during 
the Pontificate of Clement VIII. (vg •^), declaring in its 
preface, that Sixtus, finding that some errors had crept into the 
former edition through the negligence of the printers, was about 
to recall the whole impression, but was prevented by death : 
for this assertion there is not an atom of proof. The ordinary 
editions of the Vulgate are reprints of the Clementine edition. 

There are several MSS. of the Old Latin version extant, all 
of them very fragmentary. A list of them will be found in 
Scrivener's Introduction^ p. 258. Critical editors always mark 
them with the small letters of the alphabet ; for instance, 
a. b. c. d. 

Of the Vulgate there are two important MSS. extant 
CoDEX Amiatinus (am) of the sixth century : brought into 


the Laurentian Library at Florence, from the monastery of 
Monte Amiatino in Tuscany. It contains nearly the whole of 
both Testaments, written stichometrically — ^was looked through 
for the Sixtine edition — ^and the New Testament portion was 
edited by Tischendorf (1850). 

Codex Fuldensis (fuld), about the same age, is in the 
Abbey of Fulda, in Hesse Cassel : it contains the New Testa- 
ment — the Gospels being arranged in a kind of harmony — and 
was written by order of Victor, Bp. of Capua. 

Egyptian Versions. 

The Memphitic version (cop or memph) dates probably from 
the third century, so called from Memphis the great capital 
city : it is in the dialect of lower Egypt, and was for a long 
time the only version known. The native Christians in modem 
Egypt use this version in their public services, although they 
habitually converse in Arabic. Little has been done in the 
way of editing. The last edition is that of Schwartze continued 
by Boetticher, which is pronounced unsatisfactory by some. 

The Thebaic version (sah or theb) is in the dialect of Upper 
Egypt : so called from Thebes, the chief city : it was formerly 
called the Sahidic^ from the Arabic name of the district This 
dialect is more free from admixture with the Greek than the 
Memphitic; and the version is thought to have been 
made somewhat the earlier of the two. The existing MSS. are 
only fragments. Woide (cf. page xvL) was the first who paid 
much attention to this, and in zealous industry he has not been 
surpassed by any of his successors. 

The Basmuric fragments (basm) contain portions of both 
the Old and New Testaments. The version is based on the 
Thebaic, and the language is said to be a modification of that 
dialect to suit the colloquial usage of some district Some 
critics have fixed on the Oasis of Ammon as the place where 
it was made. The fragments were published by Engelbreth 
(181 1). 

The Gothic Version (goth). 

In the middle of the fourth century, Ulphilas bishop of the 


GothSy foimed an alphabet, and translated the Scriptures into 
this language, the Old Testament being translated from 
the LXX. The CoeUx Argenteus^ of the sixth century, in 
the University of Upsal, contains fragments of the gospels. It 
has been edited by Uppstrom (Upsal, 1854). There are also 
some palimpsest fragments of the Epistle to the Romans in the 
Ducal Library at Wolfenbiittel, edited by Knittel, in 1762, and 
of five other MSS. in the Ambrosian Library at Milan. These 
latter contain portions of Ezra, Nehemiah, the four gospels, and 
the greater part of S. Paul's Epistles. They were discovered 
and edited by Mai, in 1817. 

The Armenian Version (arm) dates from the fifth centuiy : 
up to that time the Armenians used the Peshito version, and 
the Syriac letters. In 43 1, a. d. Joseph and Eznak returned from 
the council of Ephesus bringing Greek copies of the Scriptures, 
whereupon Miesrob threw aside, so far as the New Testament 
was concerned, the version already made horn, the Syriac, and 
they began a new one from the Greek: finding themselves 
deficient in knowledge of this tongue, Joseph, Eznak, and 
Moses Chorenensis, the Armenian historian, went to study 
Greek at Alexandria; and at last a version of the New Testa- 
ment from the Greek was executed. The first printed 
Armenian Bible is that of Bp. Uscan (arm use), published at 
Amsterdam in 1666. The Ust edition is said to be that of 
Zohiab (arm zoh), published at Venice in 1789. 

The iETHioPic Version (aeth), dates fix>m the sixth or 

seventh century, and is used by the Abyssinians ; it is in the 

dialect of the province of Axum, which has now givqi place to 

the Amharic The Old Testament part was translated from 

the LXX, the New Testament fix>m the Greek. The style is 

said by some to be confiised, tautological and unequal, but 

Ellicott speaks well of it Portions of the Old Testament have 

been often published, the whole never. Of the New Testa- 

T«Ant Bode published a revision in 1753, and in 1826 — ^30 

ed it for the British and Foreign Bible Society. This 

bg intended for ecclesiastical use, is not much good 



It now seems desirable to give a summaiy of a few of the 
principal editions of the New Testament, resulting from a 
comparison of the evidence just described. 

Printed Editions of the New Testament. 

The first edition of the entire New Testament projected, though 
that of Erasmus was published before it, was the New Testa- 
ment p<»tion of the Complutensian Polyglott, so called from the 
Latin name of the town in Spain (Alcala) where it was printed. 
It was undertaken through the liberality of Cardinal Ximenes, 
Abp. of Toledo. Several editors celebrated for their learning 
were engaged in the work : but it is well known that no MS. of 
first rate authority, either uncial or cursive, was consulted, those 
sent from the Vatican to be examined being only late MSS. of 
a debased t3rpe. The New Testament part was printed first 
and was finished in 15 14, but the whole work consisting of both 
Old and New Testament did not get into circulation till 1522. 

The Editions of Erasmus. While the Complutensian Poly- 
glott was in progress Erasmus was requested by Froben, a printer 
of Basle, to prepare an edition of the New Testament : owing 
to the anxiety of both editor and publisher, to get the work out 
bffore the work of the Spanish divines, fax too short a time was 
allowed for conducting it The necessary preliminaries were 
not settled till September 1515, and the work was in the hands 
of the public in February 15 16. So pressed was Erasmus by 
the shortness of time, and his other literary engagements, that 
in some cases, he was forced to use library MSS. for printer's 
copy. The two MSS. used in this way are preserved in the 
library at Basle, marked both by Erasmus and the printer. 
For the Apocalypse, he had only an imperfect MS. which was 
deficient in the last six verses: these he therefore translated 


from the Vulgate, into Greek of his own, and consequently in 
that part of the Revelation, there are still among the received 
text, words which have no authority from any Greek MS. 
whatever; cf Scrivener, (Introduction p. 296). In his first two 
editions, he di4 not insert the celebrated passage concerning 
the heavenly witnesses (i John v. 7) and was in consequence 
severely called to account by many, among others by his rivals 
the Spanish editors. He promised to insert the words on the 
authority of any one Greek MS. and after some trouble, a 
cursive of the 15th century was found : probably the MS. now 
in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, (cf. Scrivener p. 149). 
Erasmus lived to publish five editions altogether, which from their 
popularity had great influence in forming the received text. 
He had the good sense to correct his later editions by the 
Complutensian : but in his case also manuscripts of note were 
not used. 

The editions of the Stephens, father and son, are the 
next which claim our attention. Robert Stephens who lived in 
the first half of the i6tli century, began life as a printer at Paris, 
where he printed at the Imperial press his first three editions 
of the New Testament In 1552, he went to Geneva, and openly 
declared himself a Protestant In 155 1 he had published at 
Geneva before finally settling there his fourth edition. The 
folio tiiurd edition 1550 was the first ever published with 
appliances for criticism. It obtained great popularity and forms 
the basis of the received text in England. In his preface to it, 
he speaks of sixteen authorities : none of which were worth mudh 
except Codex D \ nor if they had been, were they properly used, 
the collating of them being entrusted to the younger Stephens 
(Henry), then only 18 years old. 

Beza a French divine who occupied the foremost place 
among the Huguenots, after the deiith of Calvin ; published at 
Geneva five editions of the New Testament, in the latter part of 
the sixteenth century. He had better materials than any of his 
predecessors — Codd. D. 1. e, D. of the Gospels and Acts, and 
Codex Claromontanus containing S. Paul's Epistles, (both 


already described) : he had also the papers of Henry Stephens, 
and the Latin version of the Peshito by Tremellius : but the 
benefit that might have been gained was somewhat impaired by 
his unfortunate habit of allowing preconceived theological 
opinions, to influence him in deciding upon various readings.; 
he was a better commentator than critia 

The editions of the brothers Bonaventure and Abraham 
Elzevir published at Leyden in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century, are noteworthy not from containing any fresh 
critical materials — ^they were based on the editions of Stephens, 
and probably Beza, but because till quite recently they were 
steadily reprinted on the continent, just as the third edition 
(1550) of Stephens was in England. The expression 'received 
texf takes its origin from the language used by the Elzevirs' 
editor on putting forth the edition of 1624 ; in the preface he 
speaks of the text as ' received by all ' and goes on to say '' so 
then you have a text received by all in which we publish 
nothing altered or corrupt" 

No great progress was made in the knowledge of criticism till 
the time of Dr. John Mill of Queen's College and S Edmund's 
Hall, Oxford : a most able and laborious critic, who devoted the 
last thirty years of his life to working upon his edition of the 
New Testament, and died in 1707 just one fortnight after 
publishing it He was the first who thoroughly realised, and 
attempted to cope with the vast field that lies before a New 
Testament critic : no one before him had thought patristic citations 
worthy of notice, on these Mill bestowed great labour. Versions 
are said to be his weakest point : it had not yet been discovered 
how little Latin translations firom the Oriental tongues can be 
trusted As a collator of MSS. he ranks veiy high, though his 
work is not of such a character as the strict accuracy of modem 
scholarship demands. His Prolegomena, giving the history of the 
text and treating besides of the Canon have never been 
surpassed for learning and research. Codex A was used by 
Mill as well as several minor MSS : while pronouncing decided 
opinions on particular readings in his Notes, he did not venture 


to introduce any change into the text, but repeated that of 
Stephens. For what he had done he was attacked after his 

Shortly afterwards 17 16, Bentley, Masterof Trinity College, 
Cambridge, made great preparations for publishing an edition 
of the New Testament, sparing neither time nor money. By 
the aid of the latter he procured from Rome and Paris collations 
of B and C. Mill (between whom and Bentley, there had long 
existed hearty friendship) had, he said, only accumulated various 
readings as, "a promptuary to the judicious and critical 
reader." Bentley would '' make use of that promptuary, and not 
leave the reader in doubt and suspense" (from his letter to Abp, 
Wake quoted in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible sub verba. New 
Testament). He thought that the oldest Greek MSS. and those 
of Jerome's Latin Version resembled each other so nearly that by 
their united aid he might restore the text to its original purity. 
With this design he accumulated laige stores of various readings 
and notes, but finding probably, as time went on and evidence 
increased that his theory was quite mistaken, he never published 
at all though he lived on till 1743. This is much to be 
regretted as his great genius and known critical skill could 
hardly have failed to do some good. 

John Albert Bengel, "Abbot of Alpirspach in the 
Lutheran communion of Wurtemberg" published an edition of 
the Greek Testament in 1734, which is chiefly remarkable 
from his views about the vznoMs families and recensions of MSS. 
and evidence generally. Noticing that certain MSS. versions 
and ecclesiastical writers have such an affinity for each other 
that if one favour a particular reading, some at least of the 
others will follow it, and inferring that all testimony of this 
kind must have had a common origin : he thought that for the 
sake of convenience and economy of time, it would be desirable 
to group all existing external evidence into families or tribes : 
thus by comparing one class with another, the relative impor- 
tance of each might be estimated. He wished to divide all 
documents into two classes, the Asiatic written in or near 


Constantinople of which he did not think much, and the 
African including the few of a better sort 

Wetstein a native of Basle, was employed by Bentley at the 
age of 27, to collect materials for his proposed edition. While 
travelling about for this and other purposes, he zealously 
examined all MSS. that fell in his way so that by the time he 
published his New Testament 1751, he had himself collated 
about 102 MSS. He was the first to quote MSS. by the 
marks that are in use now, in the course of his travels he had 
made himself acquainted with all the chief tmcial MSS. 
described above, except of course Codex Sinaiticus, besides 
many. cursives Evangelistaria and PraxapostolL He was also 
well acquainted with the versions and earlier printed editions. 
The patristic citations are said to be his weakest point His 
work must be held to have advanced the knowledge of critical 
principles far beyond its previous condition. 

The only other editions published in the last century, that 
seem to require notice are those of Griesbach, whose labours 
on the New Testament have influenced most editions, almost up 
to the present time. Griesbach published his first edition of the 
New Testament in 1774 : his second and chief edition in 1796- 
1806. He also was a diligent examiner of manuscripts : but the 
chief peculiarity in his work, is that he revives and extends the 
theory of families, and classes of evidence originally started by 
BengeL At first he was disposed to divide all testimony into 
five or six diflferent classes, but ultimately he reduced the num- 
ber to three, the Alexandrine, the Byzantine, and the Western 
recensions. In the first group, he placed MSS. of the highest 
character such as A. B. C. which he supposed to agree with 
Origen's readings. The second class included the great bulk 
of the evidence of every kind, MSS. fathers and versions. The 
Western recension comprised the MSS. that have a Latin 
version, such as D of the Gospels, the Old Latin and Vulgate 
versions and ihe Latin fathers. To the second class he pro- 
fessed to allow very little weight, the joint testimony of two 


classes was always to prevail : and since the received text rests 
entirely on MSS. of the second class, the editions he put forth 
would have deviated much more widely from the ordinary ones 
than they did, had not Griesbach been guided rather by his 
own consummate skill and tact, than by his theory which he 
must soon have seen to be fallacious, not because the desire 
fhat gave rise to it is wrong, but because no secure basis has 
yet been found, on which to form an arrangement of this sort 
Such a scheme would be a boon now to critics if it could be 
once arranged in a satisfactory manner. 

Passing over the labours of Scholz, more remarkable for 
their quantity than their quality, we come to Lachmann : the 
first volume of his Testament, appeared in 1842, the second in 
1850. This edition is remarkable as being the first in which 
the laws of comparative criticism were rigidly and inflexibly 
applied to the recension of the sacred text No prescriptive 
right whatever was allowed to the received text ; as had been 
by all previous editors. Another remarkable feature in the 
book, was that Lachmann strove to bring the text back as 
nearly as possible to its condition in the fourth century by 
rejecting all evidence of every kind, that was not earlier than 
that time. It appeared after a while that he did not consider 
this an end, but only means to an end — ^he did not mean to 
give in his edition the text as it should be, but only to bring it 
back to the fourth century standard in order to form the basis 
for further criticism. The great defect in the whole plan was 
his having overlooked the notorious fact that before the time of 
Constantine, the text had become almost as corrupt as it ever 
was since. 

Of living critics we may enumerate Tregelles, Tischendorf, 
and Scrivener. Dr. Tregelles besides several other works, has 
edited "a Greek New Testament together with the Latin 
version of Jerome, from the Codex Amiatinus'' — sl work of 
great learning and ability in which the testimony of all the 
ancient MSS. versions and ecclesiastical writers, (as far as 
Eusebius) has been taken into account 


Mr. Scrivener besides his Introduction quoted above, from 
which we have derived most of the information in this 
article, has edited several MSS. of portions of the New Testa- 
ment m facsimile : and has published, an accurately printed 
edition of the text of Stephens in which by an ingenious 
arrangement of the type, the chief variations in the readings 
from that time to the present are shown at a glance. 

But Tischendorf, of all living critics, is unquestionably the 
man who has most influenced the Greek Testament scholarship 
of our day. It would take up too much space to describe the 
journeys he undertook for the purpose of discovering ancient 
copies of the Scriptures. A succinct account is given in his 
Origin of the Gospel^ translated by the Religious Tract Society. 
His seventh edition of the Greek Testament, 1856 — 9, and 
the smaller edition of the same book, are considered to be all 
that can be desired. The text of that edition must suffer some 
modification on account of the discovery of Codex Sinaiticus. 
As it stands, however, it exhibits a decidedly conservative spirit, 
moving in some cases from the most ancient authorities back 
towards the received text 

The Origin of the Gospels. 

In what order and at what date the first three Gospels, as 
we now have than, were published, is a question frequently 
discussed : it gains much of its interest fix)m the difficulty felt 
in accounting for the divergences between the Evangelists in 
the accounts they give of the same event Any one who 
will take the trouble to read the descriptions of any par- 
ticular occurrence, e,g. the Crucifixion, cannot fail to notice 

Many attempts have been made to explain the difficulty, by 
assuming that the narrators made use of each other's work, one 


gospel having been written first, which was used by the second 
writer, and the two first by the third. Each gospel in turn 
has been placed first, and all possible combinations made. 
But on this hypothesis it has been found impossible to show 
why a later Evangelist has passed over details narrated by the 
earlier books from which he copied, why he has adopted their 
language up to a certain point, and then abandoned it This 
hypothesis in the crude shape just described being found 
always defective, other and more elaborate hypotheses of the 
same sort have been resorted to ; we quote as a specimen the 
most elaborate of all, firom the article Gospels in the Dictionary 
of the Bible. The existence is assumed of 

1. A Hebrew original 

2. A Greek translation. 

3. A transcript of No. i, with alterations and additions. 

4. Another transcript, with another set of alterations and 

5. Another, combining both the preceding, used by 
S. Mark, who also used No. 2. 

6. Another, with the alterations and additions of No. 3, 
and with further additions, used by S. Matthew. 

7. Another, with those of No. 4. and further additions, 
used by S. Luke, who also used No. 2. 

8. A wholly distinct Hebrew document, in which our 
Lord's precepts, parables, and discpurses were recorded, but 
not in chronological order; used both by S. Matthew and 
S. Luke. 

Against hypotheses of this sort, in general, there may be 
urged the fatal objection, that for every new class of facts a 
new document must be assumed to have existed : and against 
this particular hypothesis it may be urged, that it does not 
account for the agreement between S. Mark and S. Luke, 
which sometimes, although but rarely, occurs. Moreover, 
such a hypothesis involves an amount of research and 
mechanical skill in composition, quite foreign to the Apostolic 


Another and an entirely diifferent method of explaining the 
difficulty, which may be seen fiilly treated of in Westcotfs 
Iniroduction to the Study of the Gospels (pp. 152 — 159), is the 
following. The traditions and habits of that age were entirely 
opposed to committing facts to writing : in the ordinary way 
especially amongst the Jews, recourse was had to the memory. 
Hence it is not probable, that for the first few years, any 
written account of our Lord's life and actions existed. At the 
same time, in consequence of the addresses to heathen and 
converts constantly delivered, and inasmuch as those addresses 
were always occupied with the same set of important facts, a 
knowledge of which was declared by S. Peter, Acts i. 22, to be 
requisite in an Apostle, viz. what happened from the baptism 
of John unto that same day that he was taken up from us : it 
must have resulted that a particular set of expressions and 
terms became regularly applied to the account of a particular 
event In short, there was gradually formed an oral gospel. 
After a time, as we know from the opening verses of S. Luke's 
Gospel, tmtten accounts by diflferent uninspired persons began 
to abound, in the shape of letters or short descriptions of 
particular scenes. Thus by the time that the Evangelists were 
moved by the Holy Spirit to compose their gospels for the 
use of believers, there was already existing a number of 
accounts of what they had to relate, moulded by custom into 
a recognised phraseology. Now it is only natural to suppose 
that among die accounts in circulation, whether written or 
oral, the sayings and discourses of our Lord would occupy a 
very prominent place : and in accordance with this, we find 
that the places where the words of die Evangelists accord most 
nearly, are usually those that relate the sayings of Christ — ^the 
recitative portions of the gospels — while in the narrative 
portions, where the Evangelist is recounting particular events, 
is foimd the greatest diflference. 

This theory seems to meet the requirements of the problem, 
in so fax as it satisfactorily explains the origin of the great 
similarity existing in certain parts of the Gospels. How it 


comes about that one Evangelist omits entirely that which 
others record, and records what they onut, will require further 
consideration, and may perhaps be best explained by examining 
the spiritual plan which pervades each gospel 

Augustine arranges the four living creatures of EzekieFs 
vision, by which it was usual to distinguish the four Evangelists, 
as follows : — ^The lion he assigns to S. Matthew, because his is 
the royal Gospel ; the man to S. Mark, because by him the 
human side of the Redeemer's character is more conspicuously 
pourtrayed ; the ox^ the animal of sacrifice, to S. Luke, whose 
gospel especially sets forth the fact that Christ died to make 
atonement for all ; and the eagle to S. John, who loves, while 
soaring above the things of time and sense, to contemplate the 
deep mysteries of Christ's divine nature. 

And if the view taken above be correct ; if it be true that 
S. Matthew's purpose is to show that Christ Jesus was indeed 
the Messiah, who came to fulfil the Law and obey its precepts; 
that S. Mark, writing probably imder S. Peter's direction, aims 
at giving a brisk and stirring picture of the doings of the Lord, 
designed especially for those who, like S. Peter, live chiefly in 
the present, and passing rapidly firom scene to scene, not how- 
ever to the neglect of minute details \ that S. Luke, like the Apos- 
tle whom he constantly attended, keeps always distinctly before 
us the great fact that by His death on Calvary, Christ made 
atonement for the sins of the whole world: that S. John's 
Gospel is more peculiarly adapted for those of a contemplative, 
rather than an active, spirit, who love to ponder on our Lord's 
Divinity : then it is not hard to see, why, in accordance with 
the plan in each case before them, the Evangelists should have 
been led to omit some things, and insert others: why, for 
instance, in S. Matthew's Gospel the Sermon on the Mount, 
setting forth the laws of the Messiah's Kingdom, should occupy 
a prominent, while with S. Luke it occupies a subordinate, 

Hence it seems rea^nable to conclude, that the Gospels 
were written by their respective authors in entire independence 


of each other. S. Matthew's, at least in the earlier form in 
which it probably once existed, was composed in Judaea. S. 
Mark's, as we shall try to show, probably in Rome. [S. Luke's, 
possibly, according to the early tradition, * in the regions of 
Achaia and Boeotia ; ' certainly before S. Paul's imprisonment 
at Rome. S. John's, at Ephesus, after the speculations of the 
early Gnostics had begun to unsettle the faith of believers. 
Thus too it is tolerably dear, that whether the order assigned 
to the Gospels be arithmetically correct or not, at any rate, 
they are in the order of the successive stages in the develop- 
ment of the gospel — successive circles growing gradually wider 
and wider, within which the glad tidings were proclaimed : the 
two first Gospels would belong to the period that preceded, 
the two last to the period that succeeded, the outbreak of the 
fierce conflict with the Judaizers ; so that whether S. Mark's 
Gospel were published a few years before S. Luke's, or not, 
the Church has been guided by a true instinct in placing them 
in the order in which they stand. 



The voice of tradition is imanimous in assigning this 
Gospel to S. Mark, and not till about thirty years ago, was the 
opinion expressed in Germany, that, on account of a passage 
fi-om Papias, which we shall have to quote below, the Gospel 
in its present shape might have been revised by a later editor ; 
since Papias seems to speak of a simpler and less orderly 
composition, than that now bearing the name of S. Mark. 
This opinion has never found favour, and appears to be quite 
groundless. Some have thought that the Mark (Marcus) who 
wrote this gospel, is not the same person as the John, whose 
sumame^was Mark, of Acts xii. 12, 25, because the earliest 


writers never call the Evangelist, John, and always speak of 
him as the companion of S. Peter, and not of S. Paul. Against 
this it may be urged, that the Latin name seems to have 
gradually superseded the Jewish name (John) : possibly this 
disuse of the former name, and assumption of a new one, may 
point to some change in his life, of which we are not told, 
similar to that which caused Paul to supersede Saul, and 
possibly Matthew tp supersede LevL 

If this be correct, we find that he was the son of a Mary, 
who seems to have been a woman of some position and 
influence, as it was at her house that the converts assembled to 
pray for Peter when imprisoned, Acts xiL 12. From his 
Latin surname, it is possible that his family may have been 
connected, in some way or other, with a Roman house. From 
S. Peter's speaking of him as "his son," (i Pet v. 13) it is 
pbssible that S. Mark may have been led to embrace Chris- 
tianity by him. There is a tradition, not generally accepted, 
that S. Mark was one of the seventy disciples ; that he was 
offended at the hard saying of Jesus 0ohn vL 60), and 
deserted Him, but was brought back by S. Peter. 

We find from the Scripture, Col. iv. 10, that S. Mark was a 
cousin of Barnabas, himself a Levite of C)^rus ; some have 
inferred from this, that S. Mark also was of priestly birth. He 
lefl Jerusalem for Antioch, in company with Barnabas and Saul, 
before they had been commissioned to preach to the Gentiles 
(Actsxii. 25) ; accompanied them on their first missionary jour- 
ney as far as Perga in Pamphylia, Acts xiii. 13, where he left 
them, and returned to Jerusalem ; perhaps from dread of the risk 
incurred in visiting so wild a country as that which they were 
approaching ; perhaps because, being of a warm and impulsive 
temperament, he wished again to join himself to S. Peter. 
This conduct was looked on by S. Paul with so much disappro- 
bation, that when starting on the second missionary journey he 
refused to allow S. Mark to be his companion ; consequently, 
Barnabas and S. Mark went again to Cyprus, leaving S. Paul 
and Silas to travel through Asia. The next time S. Mark is 


mentioned, is during S. Paul's imprisonment at Rome, when, in 
\mting to Philemon (ver. 24), he speaks of S. Mark as one of 
his " fellow-labourers f and in writing to the Colossians (iv. 
10), he speaks of his coming to Asia as possible : shortly 
before his martyrdom (2 Tim. iv. 11), he desires Timothy to 
take Mark and bring him^ for he is profitable unto me finr the 
ministry. Somewhat earlier perhaps (i Pet v. 13), we find 
him at Babylon with S. Peter, joining in his salutations, and 
called by the endearing title of " son." 

Besides the traditions about him already referred to, there 
are some important passages which it may not be amiss to 
quote at length. 

Eusebius {Ecclesiastical History^ iii. 39) quoting from 
Papias, a writer whose works have not come down to us, 
says : 

This also [John] the elder, used to say : Now Mark be- 
came the interpreter of Peter, and all that he remembered he 
accurately wrote down; not, however, in order, either the 
sayings or doings of Christ For he neither heard the Lord, 
nor did he follow Him, but afterwards, as I said, followed 
Peter, who arranged his teaching with a view to what was 
necessary, but not as if drawing up an orderly account of the 
Lord's discourses, so that Mark made no mistake in describing 
some things just as he remembered them. For he paid atten- 
tion to one point — to leave out nothing that he had heard, and 
to make no false statement in his account 

Eusebius (H. E. vi. 14) quoting firom Clement of Alex- 
andria, gives the following account of the manner in which the 
Gospel was composed. 

When Peter had publicly preached the word in Rome, 
and by the Spirit proclaimed the Gospel, those who were 
present being many in number, begged Mark since he had 
followed him for a long time and remembered what was said, 
to write down his discourses, and he produced the Gospdi and 
gave it to those who asked him. When Peter became aware 
of this he purposely neither checked nor forwarded it 



This account does not agree with the less probable one 
given by the same author (H. £. ii. 15.), also on the authority 
of Papias and Clement of Alexandria ; where he says, that S. 
Peter's hearers " not being content with once hearing, nor with 
"the unwritten teaching of the divine proclamation, begged 

" Mark to leave them a memorial in writing of the doc- 

" trine that was delivered to them in words And they say 

" that the Apostle knowing what was done, the Spirit revealing 

"it to him confirmed the writing for the use of the 

" churches." 

Again (H» K V. 8.) Eusebius says, that after the tl$o^t 
(i. e, probable death, though some say, departure from Rome) 
of Peter and Paul, Mark the disciple and interpreter of Peter, 
himself also delivered to us in writing what was proclaimed by 
Peter. This last account lacks the extravagancies of the 
previous one: Irenaeus (Haer. in. i ; in. 10. 6) ; TertuUian 
(contr. Marcionem, iv. 5) ; Origen (quoted by Euseb. H. E. 
VI. 25), and Jerome (ad Hedibiam, qusest xi.), all agree that 
the Evangelist wrote his Gospel as the interpreter {ipfitipeurrfs) 
of the Apostle Peter. Some have been inclined to accept this 
word in its most literal sense, and understand that 8. Mark 
translated into Greek the Aramaic discourses of the Apostle ; 
others, with more probability, consider that S. Mark wrote a 
gospel, which in its details and general plan, conformed very 
closely to the tenor of S. Peter's preaching. 

From the passages ah-eady quoted, it isr tolerably dear that 
S. Mark was closely connected with S. Peter during the latter 
part of his life, sojoummg with him at Rome, though this 
latter point is denied by some who maintain that the tradition 
(related Euseb. H. E. vi. 14) rests on a misunderstanding of 
I Pet v. 13, the word Babylon there being by some misunder- 
stood to mean Rome instead of the femous city in Chaldaea. 

With regard to other portions of S. Mark's life, there is a 
tradition, not so well supported as the one last noticed, that he 
was sent by S. Peter to Egypt (Euseb. H. E. 11. 16) ; there he 
founded the church of Alexandria, preached in various places, 


returned to Alexandria, became bishop of that plac^ and 
finally died a martyr's death (Jerome, chap, 8.) 

If we leave the history of the Evangelist and turn to the 
Gospel itself, we may be quite certain that it is the work of 
the Apostle whose name it bears : and in accordance with the 
well-supported tradition quoted above, we may safely conclude 
that whether published before or after S. Peter's death, it was 
in some way connected with him; perhaps published at his 
request though not till after his martyrdom. There is a 
tradition that this Gospel was originally published in Latin; 
this only rests on the subscriptions to a few MSS. Syriac and 
others, and may be at once dismissed. It arose out of the 
idea that because the Gospel was probably written and pub- 
lished at Rome for the use of Gentile Christians, it must there. 
fore have been written in Latin. But at that time, as has been 
already observed, Greek was thoroughly understood by all classes 
at Rome. Irenseus {contra Hcereses^ Bk. iii. ch. xi. 7.) mentions 
a sect of heretics, possibly the Cerinthians, who looked with 
especial favour on this Gospel because they considered that it 
supported their peculiar tenets. They " separated Jesus from 
Christ" — the humanity from the Divinity — ^maintaining that 
Jesus suffered while Christ continued unharmed. This fancy 
they seem to have rested on the fact that S. Mark relates as 
many Miracles as either of the other Synoptists, while he 
relates only foiu: Parables. Hence, they would argue, since he 
dwells so much on the works of the Messiah's power — ^the 
miracles and mighty acts which bear the impress of God — ^and 
not on words and discourses like those of ordinary men, is it 
not clear that an Omnipotent Being like this could not be 
Man at the same time that He was God ? 

There are two Apocryphal writings sometimes mentioned 
in connexion with this Gospel, which, therefore, seem to require 
a brief notice : they are 

The Gospel according to Peter : found in circulation 
at Rhossus a Cilician town, towards the close of the second 
century, by Serapion bishop of Antioch ; he suppressed it 


because he saw that, while possessing much in common with 
the canonical Gospels, it secretly favoured the views of the 
Docetae, with whom it was, therefore, very popular. It was 
probably S* Mark's Gospel as the heretics we lately mentioned 
would have liked it to be ; and dates from about the beginning 
of the second centuiy. This information is derived from 
Eusebius (H. £. vi. 12.) and from Lightfoot {Ep, to GalatianSy 
p. 267, edit 2). 

The Preaching of Peter, very popular during the second 
and third centuries, was a work strongly opposed to Judaism. 
Some are inclined to consider it identical with the Preaching of 
Paul: Lightfoot {Ep. to Galatians, p. 337, edit 2.) thinks this 
very doubtful. This work also should most likely be assigned 
to the beginning of the second century. It is quoted by 
Clement of Alexandria {Stromata vi. chap. 5. ad initium\ and 
seems to have had nothing but the name which could connect 
it with S. Mark. Cf. Westcott, Introduction to the Gospels^ p. 226. 
Time when the Gospel was written, ' About this nothing 
certain is known. From what has gone before it will be seen 
that traditions are conflicting; some placing the publication 
in S. Peter's lifetime, others after his death. The Epistle to 
the Colossians was written about ad. 62, and it is not likely 
that the Gospel was published before that date, or (in iv. 10.) 
some mention would have been made of it by S. Paul when 
speaking of S. Mark : on the other hand, from the expressions 
used in the thirteenth chapter, when speaking of the Holy 
City, it is clear that when the Gospel was written the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem was yet to come. Hence it cannot have 
been written in a. d. 70, or later. 

PUue where the Gospel was written. Tradition is almost 
entirely agreed, in assigning Rome as the place of publication : 
and there seems no reason why this should not be accepted as 
correct ; we might adduce the great number of Latin wbrds-^ 
as a proof, but some object that S. Mark, was evidently well 
acquainted with Latin, and would have used them anywhere. 
Chrysostom mentions Alexandria but brings no arguments 


to support his*opmion : he probably was led to choose Alex- 
andria, on'accou ntof the tradition, mentioned before, that S. 
Mark was bishop of that place, and died there by martyrdom. 

Distinctive features of the Gospel 

Its connection with S. Peter can hardly be doubted: yet 
this has been disputed on the ground that there are passages 
where, if the writer had been so intimately connected with 
S. Peter, important information would have been given, which 
is omitted e, g, in Mark viL 17 we read that *" His disciples 
asked Him concerning a parcible^ while in the parallel passage 
of Matthew (xv. 15) we are told that it was Peter. Luke 
(xxii. 8) tells us that Peter and John were sent to make ready 
the passover : S. Mark (xiv. 13) merely mentions ^two of His 
disciples* S. Mark omits to record S. Peter's walking on the 
sea, and also omits the blessing pronounced upon him (Matt. 
xvL 17 — 19). It is however possible that in all these passages 
the Apostle's name is omitted from humility; especially as 
S. Mark's account of the denials is complete and particular, 
while the word bitterly is omitted in recording his weeping. 

// was written for Gentiles: this is admitted by all, and 
appears clearly 

From the omission of any genealogy of our Lord. 

From the Old Testament not being quoted in the narrative 
portions ; the passage at the opening of the Gospel is the only 
exception since the quotation in xv. 28 is probably spurious, 
and the only other quotations are in the recitative passages — 
the accoimts of words spoken by our Lord. 

From his always translating Aramaic expressions : e. g. 
V. 41 j viL 34. 

From his explaining Jewish names and customs : e, g. the 
Jordan is a river, i. 5 ; the Passover is a season when un- 
leavened bread is eaten, xiv. i, 12 ; the situation of the Mount 
of Olives is described, xiii. 3 ; and the Jews' ceremonial wash- 
ings, vii. i^ — 4. 


Style: this has been to a certain extent entered upon while 
discussing the origin of the Gospel, S. Mark loves to present a 
brisk, faithfully delineated description of the most important 
events, passing rapidly from one fact to another ; this is seen 
by the frequency with which the word cv^cW occiu:s in his 
Gospel, 41 times in all, and by his preference of the present 
tense to the aorist Minute details, as we might expect in the 
friend of S. Peter, are carefully recorded ; thus it is often he 
alone who describes ova Lord's look and feelings, iiL 5, 34 ; 
V. 32 ; vi 6 : the Aramaic words he uttered, iii. 17 ; v. 41 ; 
vii. II, 34 ; xiv. 36 ; the marks of His tenderness, vi. 34 ; 
viii. 3 ; the turns in His language ; viii 38 ; ix. 39 ; the feel- 
ings of those who stood by when a miracle was wrought, 
X. 24, 32; S. Mark alone records the Parable of the seed 
growing unnoticed by men ; the cure of one that was deaf and 
had an impediment in his speech, viL 31 ; the cure of the blind 
man at Bethsaida, viii 22 ; besides this he has, as will be seen 
by referring to the lists given above, many Latin and Aramaic 
words peculiar to himself, and some Greek words and ex- 
pressions. We quote a short list of them from the article in 
the Dictionary of the Bible. 

Words peculiar to S. Mark. 

SkdKosy viL 37 ; ix. 17, 25. 

iKBaiifiutrBai, ix. 15 ; xiv. ^^ ; xvL 5, 6. 

ivaykakiCfO-Baiy ix. 36 ; X. 1 6. 

vow€x»s^ xii 34. 

vaMiBw, ix. 21. 

npofitpifiv^, xiii. II. 

irpooTTopnttaBaij X. 35. 

cr«e<oXi7^, ix. 44. 46. 48. 

afivpviC^i, XV. 23. 

OTiX^eiy, ix; 3. 

oroi/Sar, xi. 8. 


Words found most frequently in S. Mark. 

€l6€wSf 41 times, 
in€fHaTq»y 26 times, 

vafit6i irurrucrfy xiv. 3, only besides in the parallel 
passage of S. John. 

avftPovKiop irouoff iiL 6 ; XV. I^ for Xafifidiftiy of 

S. Matthew. 



I. 'APXH rot; evayyeXCov 'Iiyo-ov Xptoroi;, vlov tov Geov' 

2 m yiypairrai iv tols TTpo<f>ifiTais, "'I8ov, iy<o ATrooreXXo) 
t6v ayyeXoi/ fxov irpa TrpoaoiiTOV <tov, os KaraaKcviaci, 

3 TrfV obov (TOV ifXTTpoa-Qiv <rov*' ^'^tavfj po£vT09 iv t$ 
iprjfi<^, 'Erot/xdo-are ttjv obov KvpCov evOcCas iroietre 
TCLS TpCpovs avroO." 

4 *Eyiv€To ^laxiwris paTniC<AV iv ry iprjijn^, Koi Kripia-coiv 


c^7Y(Xiov Karjl MdpKOV may be by a Greek wife — ^tbe latter by a slave 

iiadrly paraphrased as, ' S, MarJis addressing the niaster of the house. 
recension of the Gospel'* ^^<t story 4 — 8. The first three verses having 

in that aspect which S. Mark was served as an introduction, these relate 

inspired to pourtray : ciayy^tov to the Preaching of John. Also in 

may be traced through three stages, Matt. iii. I — 12 ; Luke iii. I — 18. 
(i) the reward (given to the bearer, 4. I^^vcro must not be confounded 

Odyss. XIV. 152.) of good tidings, cf. with ^j*. The latter states a fact 

Aristophanes, £q. 656, (2) the news simply and nakedly, the former refers 

itself, cf. Appian De Bellis Civilibus, to something previous of which the 

IV. 20. N. T. passim, (3) the document fact stated is a result, in this case to 

containing the news. the divine plan by wWch John having 

Ver. 2. Iv Tots irpo4»i|rai^. All been trained, " became a baptizer in 

the best authorities read instead of this, the desert and a preacher of the 

ip rtfi *R<rcUq^ rip irpo4yfyrji. The other baptism of repentance." 
reading is an alteration of the copyists, 'I«»d.WT|ty in Heb. JeAo or Jehcfvah 

made because the first quotation is is gracious. For his early history it is 

from Mai. iii. i. and it is not till oidy needfiil to refer to the opening 

verse 3 that Isaiah xl. 3. is quoted, chapters of S. Luke. Modem investi- 

Both quotations agree very nearly with gators seem pretty well s^eed in 

the Hebrew and LXX. assigning to this public ministry a 

3. KvpCov, as used by an inferior duration of about two years, and in 

to a superior, is a less servile title than placing the baptism of our Lord some 

6e0'ir6n7f. The former would be used time in the year of Rome 780. The 


5 piTrrurfia /xeroi^ofa; €ls S^^ctv afiapTiatv* Kal i^eiropeiero 
irpos airbv vcura ri ^lovbaCa X^ipa, Koi ol 'lepoo-oXv/xirai' Kal 
ifiainCCovTO irivT€S iv r^ *lopb6vri ^ora/x^ vtt airov, i^oiw- 

6 \oyoiyL€VOi ras aixaprCas airoiv. ^Rv tk ' Ia)(ii;i;779 ivbcbvpAvos 
TpC\as KapLrjKov, Kci C^vriv beppMrCvrjv vepl rrjv 6<r^vv avrov^ 

7 Kol ioBlw; iKpCbas Koi fxiki, iypiov, Kal iic/jpva'a'ef Xiywv, 
^'''EpxeTai 6 l(rxyp6T€p6s [jlov dirdroi fiov, ov ovk e^fxl iKavbs 

8 Kiyj/as Xvaai rov IpJivra Toiv vTTobrjpATtav avrov, 'Eyca p,iv 
ifiiimaa vpMS iv ibarC avris bi jBaTrrCcr^i vfias iv HveiiiiaTi, 

9 Kal iyiv€To iv iKcCvais rais fipApais, rjKOev *Irj(rovs ivb 

beginning of 782 A. u. C. will then nasius in the wall behind the high 

be the date of the imprisonment at altar, but the honour of possession is 

IHlachserus, in consequence of the bold- disputed, several places claiming to be 

ness with which John denounced the the only rightful owners. Cf. Tillemont, 

incestuous marriage of Herod Antipas £ccl. Hist. Bk. I. Art. ill. sqq. 
with Herodias, wife of his younger 5. ^ 'i^. y^^ The southern 

step-brother Philip, tetrarch of Trach- division of Palestine, though the name 

onitis. This imprisonment was fol- is constantly used by writers not 

lowed not many weeks after by John's Jewish to denote the whole country, 

execution, Herod being then as the. xhe name Judaea, connected of course 

narrative shows, not far off; probably ^ith Judah, first came into use after the 

at a palace of his called Julias or Captivity ; and, strictly speaking, in- 

Lmas, m honour of Lma the powerful eluded the territory formerly occupied 

mother of Tibenus. Both Livias and by the tribes of Judah, Benjamm, Dan 

Machaerus were m the south of Peraea, and Simeon. 

east of Jordan : the latter was a hill tr cz ' r tt v • j i«-l ^v 

fort, so situated that it fonned the key , lopSAvft from Heb.^^W; lit &^ 

of Peraea, and was, therefore, a pomt ^T v 'wi, ^ T, }^^ r^'"^ -7 

of importance to Herod, ^ Ar*e^as, ^* ^^^^^^ ^^^, ^°^^ ^^^^ .?^°°£ **^ 

king rf Arabia, the fiiher of hi^ whole course of about 200 md^^^^^ 

repudiated wife^ was making war the Lebanon to the Dead Sea Hence 

a^nsthim. There are severed tradi- ^P^^^ ff'^ precipitous waterfalls are 

tions respecting this eminent saint, TT ll ^"^^a P'l^'^''^'y ^jl^'^g 

which tellus how he passed his youth ^f ^ "" "^^ 

at a lonely spot called Sapsas not far ^ ^^"^^.* « , 

from the Jordan, and was often visited ^ ^: «v8^w|Uvo«, part. pf. of M^vu. 

by Jesus ; and how Herodias received Passive m form, but middle m signifi- 

his gory head with the savage joy and cation. 

exposed it to the barbarous treatment 9 — "• , The Baptism also related 

which Cicero's underwent at the hands by Matt. iii. 13 — 17 ; Luke iii. 21, 22. 
of Antony's wife. It is said that he 9. Nalapfr. Is it connected with 

was buried at Samaria, and that in nezer, a crown, on account of its situa- 

the time of Julian the apostate, the tion? Not mentioned in O. T. Its 

tomb was rifled ; the relics after some modem name is en-NdztroA ; popula- 

time found their way to Alexandria, tion between 3,000 and 4,000. It lies 

where they were enclosed by Atha- in a fertile valley about a mile long, 

ver. 9—14.] S, MARK'S GOSPEL. 3 

Na^op^T r^? FoXtAafaffy mX ipairrCaOri iirb 'loxiiifov €ls tov 

JO ^lopbairqv* Kal eid^cos ipaPaCvonv iiri tov vharos, €tb€ 

(TxiCoiiivovs Tovs ovpavovs, koL t6 Ili^eSfza <i<r€i is^picrrepcof 

11 KaTofiaivov iir avrov koX (fxovfi iyhftro iK t£v ovpapw, 
*'^h €t 6 vios fwv 6 ayainjTbss €v ^ evboKTio'a,'* 

12 Kal €}}dif9 TO Uvevfui avTov iK^iXKei €ls TrfV ifyqfiov. 

13 Kal rjv iK€i hf Trj iprffM^ ffixepas Tca-capiKOVTa^ Tretpa^ofievos 
vTTo TOV XaTova, Koi ijv ixera Toiv 6ripCoi>v, koI ol iyyeXoi 
biriK6vovv avr<^. 

14 Mera hi to irapabodrjvai tov ^Icaawriv, IjkOev o *Irj(rovs 
€h TTjv TaXiKaCav, Kripviraaiv to €vayy4\iov ttjs paaiKeCas tov 

running from E. to w. among the hills subject, cf. Abp. Trench's Studies on 

which form the southern ridges of the Gospels, Art. I. 

Lebanon; distant about eighteen miles 14, 15. Opening of our Lord's 

sw. of the Sea of Galilee, and six ministry. Matt. iv. 12 — 17. In 

miles w. of Mount Tabor. There can Luke iv. 14. sqq. the account of His 

hardly be a doubt that the present return from the Temptation is im- 

town occupies the site which the village mediately followed by a description of 

of our Lord's day did. There is a the bad reception He met with in the 

remarkable precipice above the town, synagogue at Nazareth, 

forty or fifty feet high, which was 14. roXiXofav. InHeb. Gawledf 

probably the scene of the attempted meaning circuit or district. The name 

precipitation. It belongs to the better first occurs in the book of Joshua xx. 7. 

class of eastern villages. where it is the name of a district in 

12, 13. The Temptation, Matt, the mountains of Naphtali. The next 
iv. I — II ; Luke iv. I — 13. cl« ri^y notice of it is in i Kings ix. 11. where 
ipi||u>v. The traditional scene of the 20 cities in the land of Galilee are 
temptation is in the desert near Jericho, given by Solomon to Hiram, king of 
called Quarantaria. On the other Tyre, in payment of assistance rendered: 
hand, it is argued in favour of the from Hiram's dissatisfaction the terri- 
wildemess of Sinai ; that wild beasts tory does not seem to have been very 
would hardly be found near a populous valuable. He called it Cabul, a name 
town like Jericho, and that Sinai was of contempt, and the district is said by 
the place chosen by God for making Josephus to have been a barren sandy 
revelations to Moses and Elias. It mountain-basin bordering on the tern- 
should be noticed that for^ is the tory of Tyre. These 20 cities were 
number constantly associated with sin either occupied by Canaanites at the 
and punishment in O. T. The Israel- time of transfer, or peopled by Hiram 
ites wandered yWv years in the wilder- with his own subjects ; hence the 
ness, zxA forty or twice forty days was expression " Galilee of the Gentiles" 
the time during which a woman was (Isai. ix. i). During the captivity the 
considered unclean after childbirth. foreign population spread, mingling 

fy |icrd r&v 6i)pC»v. Trench sees with the strangers introduced when 

in this a resumption of the authority the ten tribes were carried away, so 

over the brutes given to Adam, but that gradually the whole district fell 

lost by him at the Fall? On the whole into disrepute, and the name from 


15 ®€ov^ Koi, Xiycov, **^Oti vcTrXi^poorat 6 Kaipos, kolL ijyyiKfv fj 
fiaaiXcCa tov 0eoi5* fxeTCWoevre^ kclI Trtoretfcrc & t^ evay^ 


16 HepivaToiv bi iraph ttiv OiKaa-a-av rfjs TaXiXaCas, ftbe 
XCfiMva Koi ^Avbpiav t^v &b€\(l>6v aOrov, fiAXXovras iii<l>C' 

17 pXficrrpov iv rfj Oakixrfrrj* rjirav yhp aA((i9* ical etirev avToTs 
S *lricrov9, '^ AevT€ SirCiria fwv, kclL iroirjo-oi vfias yeviaOai 

18 aAiei; iLvOpdiroav,** Kal €1/^^0)9 £^6^*69 rh bCicTva avT£v, 

19 fjKoXaiOria'av avrcp. Kal Trpofias iKtWev okiyov, etbev 'Icixto^oi/ 

denoting a small district came to where volcanic agencies are at work 

denote a large province, forming at the scenery is very bleak and wild, 
this time the northern of the three 18. d4^<S* 2 aor. part. act. 

divisions of Palestine. dtplTjfu, 

15. Kaipdf may be thus distin- SCktuou This word with dfjufd^rf^ 
guished from XP^^^^- The latter is arpov and (TotiJm; are the three words 
time in the abstract made up of a used for nets in N. T. The first is a 
succession of epochs longer or shorter : general term denoting any kind of net. 
while Kcup&s is a particular integral The second is an ordinary bell-shaped 
portion of XP^'^ ^^ ™^y ^^ ^ moment, cast-net, which, when thrown from 
an hour, or a year. over the shoulder, sinks by weights 

l&eravoctrc (/terd-yoety, to know attached to it. The third, the It^dian 

after) denotes repentance, as does sagena our seine is a large sweep-net 

|&era|UXi(r6ai (to care after), and the taken out in boats, and gradually 

two words are used interchangeably drawn in by the aid of persons on 

even in N. T. In so far as they may shore. It may be seen in use on the 

be distinguished, the former is the coasts of Cornwall, 

nobler word, marking a godly sorrow; 19. irpopds. 2 aor. part of rpo- 

the latter may sometimes express little paivu, 

more than the regret arising out of fear 'IdKwpov rhv toO Z^^aCov. Of 

for the consequences, as in the case of Zebedee (in O. T. Zebediah, Jah is 

Judas (Matt, xxvii. 3). giver) nothing whatever is known. It 

1 6-— 20. CALLof Peter, Andrew, has been conjectured that he died 

James and John. Matt. iv. 18 — 22 is before the Crucifixion, since his wife 

exactly parallel. Salome was at that time one of those 

16. T^ ddXaovuv rf)9 F. also in constant attendance on Jesus, cf. 
called the Sea of Gennesareth and the xv. 40 ; xvi. I. in/ra, James, Heb. 
Lake of T^iberias. In O. T. it is called Jacob, a holder of heel, was the first 
the Sea of Chinnereth (Num. xxxiv. 11.) of the apostolic band who fell a victim 
from a city near the shore (Josh. xix. to persecution. Agrippa I. the grand- 
35) : others suppose that the whole son of Herod the Great, put him to 
district got its name from the resem- death, A. d. 44. No doubt his ardent 
blance of the west shore to the arched and impulsive character led him to 
side of a chinnour or harp. It is an urge on the progress of the new 
inland lake of volcanic origin about religion with greater vehemence than 
thirteen miles long and six broad, 700 other apostles, and consequently 
feet below the level of the sea. The rendered him a mark for destruction 
Jordan enters it at the N. and passes by a sovereign professing great zeal 
out again at the s. As in all places for the Jewish religion. He with his 

ver. 20.] S. MARJTS GOSPEL. 5 

TOP Tov ZeficiaCov, Koi 'loxii/n^i; rov &8eA^v avrov, jcal 
20 avTovs iv T(p TrAo/i^ KaraprCCovras rh hUTva. Koi euSicus 
iKiXciTcv avToiis' kclI &(f)i2rr€S tov iraripa wir&v ZtPeboxov iv 
T^ vkoCf^ fi€TiL T&v iiiaOoiToiv, imjXBov 6Tr(<r(o aiJToS* 

brother John and Peter take a promi- reasonably supposed that in accord- 
nent place in the Gospel narrative, ance with the charge of his dying 
They alone witnessed the raising from Master, he remained in charge of the 
the dead of Jairus' daughter, the Virgin Mary until her death. Tradi- 
Transfiguration and the Agony in the tion is almost unanimous in fixing upon 
Garden, and it is they with Andrew Ephesus as the abode of his later 
who ask for an eicplanation of the years, whence his Gospel and iheaa. 
prophecy concerning the overthrow of his Epistles were written before the 
Jerusalem (cf. xiii. 3. infra). The Apocalypse (cf. Rev. i. 2), the date of 
other occasions on which his name, which is usually given as 95 a. d. 
coupled in each case with that of his during the persecution of Domitian. 
brother, appears, are the request to sit The apocryphal acts of John (edit, 
the one on Christ's right hand and the Tisch), give a full account of his 
other on the left in His Kingdom, and summons to Rome by Domitian on 
the wish to call down fire on the in- account of his prophecies concerning 
hospitable Samaritans. There is a the fall of the Roman empire. He is 
legend, possibly true, that when con- brought by a centurion in the public 
demned, his accuser, struck with his post carriages, eating nothing but a 
unflinching demeanour, confessed that few dates. In Domitian's presence he 
he also was a Christian, and both were drinks a cup of poison without injury, 
executed together (cf. Euseb. H. E. ii. t];ie dregs alone being sufficient to kill 
9 edit Migne). Later tradition asserts a criminal, who is restored to life by 
that James preached in Spain, and John. Instead of being executed 
that his remains were at length carried receives as a favour the milder sentence 
to Compostella, of banishment, ' on Nerva's accession 
*I«aawT|v rbv &8cX^v. Usually returns to Ephesus. At length he bids 
considered younger than his brother the brethren dig a trench outside the 
and Peter. All three had probably town,in which dler prayer he reclines 
been disciples of John the Baptist as in a bed, and dismisses his attend- 
before becoming followers of Christ : ants : on their return next day they 
were all acquainted as natives of find a copious fountain springing out 
Bethsaida. Probably John was the of the groimd and his sandals lying 
companion of Andrew (cf. John i. close by. There are also extant a 
37 — ^40) whose name is not given. S. Revelation ascribed to him, and an 
John's name never once occurs through- account of the death of the Virgin, 
out his Gospel. Some acquaintance both manifestly forgeries, 
seems to have existed between John 21 — 39. Synagogues. These 
or his family and the high-priest buildings of course varied very much 
Caiaphas. In the events that follow in size and furniture according to the 
the day of Pentecost, he takes an importance of the place in which they 
important share. The healing of the were built. The main features, retained 
man lame from birth, and the evan- in all cases, were these : the building 
gelizing of the Samaritans. The next was so arranged that its upper end 
notice we have of him is as present looked toward^ Jerusalem ; and the 
at the Jerusalem council (Acts xv. cf. seats were so contrived that the 
Gal. ii. 9. ) about A. D. 50. From this worshippers prayed in the same 
time all is uncertain. It has been direction. At the upper end was the 


21 Kol €l(nrop€t;ovra( ei; Kaircpvaovfi' koI €v6i<i>9 rot? 

22 a-i^Paa-iv cla-ekSaiV els rijv avvayoayriv, ibCba(rK€. Kal ^fcir- 
krjo'a'OVTO ivl Tp bibaxji avTov' ijv yap bibda-Koav avrovs coy 
i^ovcrCav Ixi^v, Koi ov^ ds ol ypayLixareis* Kai fiv iv rfj 

23 avvayoayfj avToiv i;vOpoi>Tros Iv irveiSfiaTi d,Ka0dpT<^, kolL 

Ark in which the rolls of the Law were who wish to form clear ideas on this 

kept The nearer to this the more subject, should consult Abp. Trench 

honourable was the position, hence the {On tAe Miracles, pp. 151 — 165, ed. 8), 

strife about TpuyroKoBeipla, In front whence I extract the following remarks, 

of the Ark was a Ump with eight Demoniacal possession must not be 

branches, only lighted onCTeatfestiv^s. confounded with lunacy or mental 

In the middle of the whole building disorders of the ordinary kind ; that it 

was a raised platform and pulpit, sometimes arose from the weakening 

whence the lessons were read and of the nervous system by means of 

exhortations delivered. The men sat sensualindulgences, as lunacy does now, 

on one side of the building, the women there can be vtry little doubt, but so 

on the other. In a small town there particular is the Umguage used by the 

would be but one Rabbi, in large ones Evangelists, that it is impossible to 

a body of elders : besides the Rabbi support the hypothesis that it was the 

there was always — the officiating min- same as lunacy by assuming that our 

ister — ^the legatus (Luke iv. 20), a kind Lord accommodated Himself to the 

of sub-deacon or chapel clerk — and opinions of the day. Again, those 

ten * mm of leisure'* as church officers, whom we find tyrannized over by evil 

and to ensure that there should always spirits are not necessarily to be classed 

be a sufficient congregation. among the worst of their kind. Others 

21. Kairtpvao^ffc (often read Ka^ap- there may be more truly children of 
yao(^/i), probably *^ village of comfort.'* the devil than they, who yet escape 
A town on the western shore of the this break up of the spiritual life and 
Sea of Galilee, where our Lord spent the strange contradictions which ensue ; 
most of his time during His Galilean but escape it only by the consistency 
ministry, when not travelling about and unslmken fidelity with which they 
It was the scene of many of His serve their master. It is not the 
miracles and discourses : its site cannot remorseless Clytemnestras of crime 
now be ascertained. Not mentioned whom we should expect to find suffer- 
in O. T. ing in this wa^, but those in whom 
23 — 27. Luke iv. 33 — 36. is paral- there is yet left some spark of good, 
leL The object of the testimony given some regret for the past If it be 
in ver. 24 has been much disputed, askedwhy the malady exists no longer? 
Some have thought it a cry uttered in we reply, (i) tjiat no doubt the mani- 
fear of the impending doom with the festation of Christ in the flesh and the 
hope of averting it : others consider it ministration of the Word and Sacra- 
intended to injure Jesus in the estima- ments which has continued ever since, 
tion of others by suggesting the sus- have done much to mitigate the power 
picion that He was in league with the of evil. (2) If one with the apostolic 
powers of darkness, cf. Trench in loco, gift of discernment of spirits went into 
The emphatic rejection with which it a lunatic asylum now, he might for 
is met is imitated by Paul when the a^ght we know declare some to be 
damsel cried after him at Philippi. affiicted with this disorder. 
'A.ctsxvi. 16. sqq.) 23. kv irvci»|fc. &Ka0dp. If it be 

Demoniacal Possession. Those lawful to consider that iv here repre- 

ver. 24-29.] S. MARICS GOSPEL. 7 

24 aviKpa^€y \iy(ov, ""Ea, rl T^fXiV koI <toI, liyo-otJ "SaCaprivi ; 
fj\0€i iiToKiaai fjixas; dtbd (re tCs el, 6 6yios rov 0eoi5." 

25 Kai iir€TCixri(r€V aiJr^ 6 'Iry<roSs, A^coi;, ** ^ifxdOriTi, koI IfeX^e 

26 i^ ai/roS," Kai (nrapd^av avrov to Trv€vixa to &KdOapTov, 

27 Kal Kpa^av <f>a>vfi p^eyaXtf, i^k0€V i( avrov* Kai iOafxprjOria'av 
irdvT^s, (Sore avCrjTelv irpos avTovs, kiyovras, ** Tt iari tovto ; 
rk 7) didax^ ^ fcatxn) avTq, on icar i^ovaCav Kai tols Trve6pLa(Ti, 

28 Tot9 dnaOdpTois i'nvrd(T<T€i^ Kai viraKovovaw avT<^ ; " 'E^^X^e 
6^ ?) dxo^ avTov eiOvs cis XAiyi; t^i; TrepCxoopov Trjs ToKiXaCas. 

29 Kai €v0i(»)s iK t^s (n;i;aya>y^s i^eXOovres, 7J\6ov eZs 

sents the Heb. preposition detA, the brought to Jesus by his brother Andrew, 

meaning will be *'a man Toi^A an and immediately named Cephas or 

unclean spirit : " otherwise the expres- Petrus a rock (cf. John i. 42). This 

sion may be illustrated by Rev. i. 10. was some time before the subsequent 

iyefSfiritf iv ILpci^fiaTi, summons while fishing. The notable 

24. la, an ordinary Gk. interjec- incidents with which Peter was con- 
tion, cf. Lat. vah ! our ah ! The nected, besides those enumerated in 
E. V. ** let us aloney'* have evidently treating of James (cf. ver. 19) are — 
taken it as imperat 2 pers. from kdja. the walking on the water to go to 

25. fircTi|iT|0'(v. hriTifidu, to find Jesus, the confession of our Cord's 
fault with* one. i\iyx<>f to convince of Messiahship, the stem rebuke for 
a fault, bring it home to the ofifender. advising Jesus not to undergo the 

<^i|i4&0T|rt. I aor. imperat Pass, prescribed course of sufferings, the 

^fi6<a, lit " be thou muzzled." desire not to exempt Jesus from pajring 

27. Besides the mode adopted in the didrachma, and the denial. Besides 

the text, there are at least two other he often appears as spokesman for the 

ways of reading and punctuating the rest ; as when he asks the meaning of 

latter part of this verse : (i) ri iariv a parable (Matt xv. 15), or represents 

TOVTO 'y i.K, KaT* i^ovffiav #cai tws iry. that, **we have left all and followed 

Tcis dK, hriTdffffctf Kcd inr, a^tfi. or (2) Thee, what shall we have therefore" 

tI iffTivTovTo; did. Kati^* kut i^owrlaf and it is to him that the women are 

Kol rots rv. rots dx. hr, k. t. X. In directed to bear the news of the Resur- 

each case the two clauses following rection (xvi 7. infra). After the 

TOVTO may be translated as they stand. Resurrection he at once assumes the 

with a note of admiration at the end of foremost place, and continues to do so 

each. throughout the history of the infant 

KOtWj, new in respect of quality. Church : insomuch that the first thirteen 

i^of, new in respect of age. Thus a chapters of the Acts are chiefljjoccu- 

young man is vioi, while the tomb in pied in describing deeds in wh^ he 

which our Lord was laid was icouv6s, was either the sole or chief actor, 

having never been used before, though His character, ardent and impulsive 

it might have been hewn out for many as it was, can hardly be the only 

years. cause of his occupying the chief place 

29 — 31. Matthew records this amongst the other twelve. This may 

miracle, viil. 14 — 17, and Luke iv, perhaps be traced partly to his desig- 

38, 39. nation by Jesus and partly to his 

29. ]S£|M»vos. Heb. Simeon (cfl courageous boldness — a boldness ac- 

Acts XV. 14.) i,e, a £smious one: companied with great weakness under 

8 S, MARK'S GOSPEL. [Ch. I. 

Tiiv oIkiov SCfjLcovos Kol ^Avbpiov, fA€Ta 'lajccSjSov KoL 'IcdaiTov. 

30 *H hi irevOepa XCyLOivos KariKeiTo irvpiiTaova-a' Kal eiOims 

31 kiyovatv avT^ ii^pi avrrjs, Kal irpoo'^kOoiv fiyeip^v avrfiv, 
Kparriaas t$9 x^^P^^ avTiis' koL i(prJK€V avTriv 6 irvpero^ 

32 evSioas, Koi btrjKovii avrot?. ^O^fftas bh y€vofihni$, St€ Ibv 

trial, as we see firom the denial fol- connected in some way with Hellenistic 
lowing so closely upon his wann- Jews. His name is also mentioned by 
hearth declaration, that ''though all John (vi 8.) in his account of the 
forsook Him yet would not he." It feeding five thousand. He it was who 
is said that Peter was married, and brought his brother Peter to Jesus 
that his wife accompanied him on his (John i. 41. sq.), and, besides his sub- 
journeys. Nothing certain is known sequent summons while mending nets, 
of his later life. We find him writing these are the only notices we have of 
his first Epistle from Babylon (in him in Scripture. The Apocryphal 
Chaldaea, not Rome as some think). Acts have two stories about S. Andrew, 
and the date usually conjectured is First, that he was conveyed by Jesus 
about A. D. 65'. The 2nd Epistle in the guise of a shipmaster to the city 
may have been written a little of the Anthropophagi, for the purpose 
later, on a journey from Babylon of rescuing Matthew. Having effected 
westwards (but cf. Alford, Proleg. this he is pointed out to the ii^abitants 
2 Pet ). Babylon was not an unlikely by the devil in the likeness of an old 
place for Pet^r to choose, as then and man. Is dragged by the neck up and 
for some centuries afterwards, it was down the streets for four days, but on 
much frequented by Jews : there was the fourth night Jesus appears and 
compiled the Babylonian or larger restores him to perfect h^th. He 
recension of the Talmud. The tradi- then causes a statue to spout forth an 
tion that Peter was martyred at K^me acid liquid that drowned and burnt up 
in Nero's reign is so well supported, the people. On the repentance of 
as to be almost certainly true. The the survivors he restores the dead to 
manner of his death is said to have life, baptizes the people and leaves the 
been crucifixion with the head down- place at last much against their will, 
wards. In the Acta Petri et Pauli The account of his martyrdom, pur- 
(Apocr. Act edit Tisch), we have a porting to be a letter from the pres- 
long discussion lasting two days, byters and deacons of the churches of 
between Simon Magus, S. Peter and Achaia, relates that, having boldly 
S.' Paul At length Simon Magus confronted Aegeates the proconsul of 
attempts, in order to prove his divinity, Patara, Andrew was by hun crucified, 
to fly, but at S. Peter's prayer the evil He hung on the cross three days and 
spirits are compelled to leave him, he nights preaching. The proconsul fear- 
falls and is killed. The Apostles are ing a tumult, wishes to release him, 
immediately beheaded. but Andrew prays to Grod that he may 

Kol ' AvSp^ov, a Greek name, not be able and dies. 
Since this apostle and Philip are the 32. i8v. 2 aor. 3rd sing, of BiSvta, 

only two whose names are not con- From a comparison of Matt viiL 16 ; 

nected with a Hebrew original, and Luke iv. 40, it will be seen that this 

since it is to them that the Greeks was probably at the end of the Sabbath 

(John xii. 20. sq.) apply in order to when it was lawful to resume work : 

obtain an interview with Jesus, it has some, however, say they only waited 

been thought that the families of till evening, because the sick could 

Andrew and Philip may have been not have borne the heat of mid-day. . 

ver. 33-44.] ^. MARJTS GOSPEL. 9 

6 tiKlos, i<i>€pov Ttpos avTov Ttavras roifs KaKSs 1x9^^^ *^^ 

33 ToifS boifioviCofJiivovs' Kal fj Tr6\is SKri imfrvvrjyfjuhnj ijv irpos 

34 TTJv Ovpav* Kal i$€pdv€v<r€ itoXXoifS icoiccS; ixpvras voLKCkais 
voaois' Koi baiiJL6via itoXXh i(€fia\€, koI ovk ^^le AaXcu; rh 
baifiovia, 8ti ^bcurav avT6v. 

35 Kal vfXiA hvuxpv \Cav dvaaras i(fjX$€, ical iiniXOcv 

36 €4S iprifiov Tovov, KiK€l w/MMnyvx^To. Kal fcaredto)^ auToj; 

37 6 ^CfjMiv kclL ol fi€T oJtov* KCit evpovTcs oJtov, Kiyovaiv ovt^, 

38 ""Ort iravTcs fiyroSorf <r€." Kal Xcyei aiJroty, ^^'^AyoDiiev eZs 
rhs ixoiiivas Ko^fwiroK^is, tva icdicei Kiipv^ia' ds roSro yhp 

39 IfeXiyAv^a/* Kal Jjv Krjpvaaoav iv rais (rvvayoDytus avroiv, 
€ls oK-qv TTJv TaXiXaCoLV, Kal ra baifiSvia iKfiaXXoDv. 

40 Kal ipx^rai irpos avrov kevpos, isapaKoX&v avrov koI 
yowirerojv avTov, koI k4y<av avr^, "''Ort, iav OiXjis, bvva<raC 

41 fA€ KadapC<rai/* 'O bi 'Iiycrovs (nr\ayxvL<r$€ls, iKveCvas ttjv 
X^tpa, r}\lfaTo avrov, ical Aeyei avr^^ " 06Aa>, KaOapCcrOrfTi.* 

42 Kal eiTTorro? avrov^ cvOiois iinjKOfv iir avTov rj Xiirpa, xal 

43 eKadapCcBri. Kal iix^pifjLrja'dfjLCvos avTi^, €V$€<os i^i^aXev 

44 avrov, Kol Aeyci ailr^, ^'''Opa, firjbevl fAqbiv 6171779* aAA' 
VTray€, aeavrov bel^ov T<p Upei, icol vpoa-iveyKC ircpl tov 

34. ^i^u* 3 sing. impf. A dt/drifu, servant of Elisha (2 Kings viii. 4.) iafler 
jScurav. 3 pL plupf. irreg. Mw being smitten with it (2 Kings v. 27) ? 

is used as pres. '^^ ^^ ^^^ directions about it were 

XoSUGv, to utter a connected series designed to serve a typical purpose. 

of words, to discourse--\&y€ip to say, ^ 41; n+aro, denotes feeing or 

introducing the words said, or speech ^andhng. ^trydvcu denotes touching : 

which foUows. ^W<£a;, feeling or groping after 

^^ ^r. T«i,« :„ A» A A {e Without necessanly touching. 
35-39. Luke IV. 42-44. IS ^ ^ 5 J[ ^^g^ ;g^^ Some 

P ^ * - . , - , J consider that this order must beunder- 

35. Kttl irpwt Ivwxw XCttV, and g^^^^ ^^^ j^^p^y . ,,^^Yi nothing untU 
early, quite by night. you have seen the priest and made the 

38. ix^fUvos. Mid. part, ^w, requisite offerings : " and this may be 

lit. * clinging to,' hence, adjoining. true, cf. Trench in loco. The only 

40 — ^45. Matt. viii. I — ^4 ; Luke satisfactory way to explain the giving 

V. 12 — 16, are parallel It is a mis- to one a charge to conceal, to another 

take to suppose that leprosy was a charge to publish (cf. v. 19.) the 

contagious under ordinary circum- details of the cure, seems to be that 

stances. How, if so, should Naaman the command was according to the 

have commanded the armies of Syria, moral fitness or unfitness of the reci* 

or Gehazi have continued to be the pient. 



KaOapurfAov aov & itpoairai^ Mowr^y, els fiaprvpiov aJrois.** 
45 *0 bi i(€\6(ov ripiaro xripvaraeiv ttoXXjol koI bta^rjiilC^iv top 

\6yov, <SaT€ iirjKm airdv bvvcurOai <t>av€pcis €ls vokiv elo-eX- 

$€lv' dXk* ^fo) iv iprJiJLOis tottois ijv, Koi ijpxovTo irpos avTov 

II. KAI irdkiv €l(ni\$€V els Kaircpvaoiifi bC rip.€p&V kolL 

2 riKovo'O'q on cJs oIkov iarC koX evdioo^ (TVVYi\0'qa'av iroXXol, 
(Sore fjLriK€Ti xoi>p€W firihi ra irpos Trjv Ovpav, kol €\d\€L wjtois 

3 Tov Xoyov. Kal ipxoirrai vpos avrov, irapaXvriKov <f)€povT€s, 

4 alp6fjL€Vov vnb Tcaa-ipoiv. Koi fjifj bvviixevoi irpoa-eyyCaai avri^ 
bih rbv oxkov, iLit^ariyaaav rriv ariyriv Sttov ^v, koX Ifopvfarres 

5 xaX£cri tov KpifiPaTov, i<f) <S 6 TrapakuriKos icaWKCtro* 'Idu)i; 
bi 6 'Itjctovs Tifv ttCotiv avroiv kiyet, r^ irapaXvriK^, *' TiKVov, 

6 i(pi(ii>VTaC o-oi at dixapTlai aovP ^Ho-ai; bi TiV€s t£v ypay^ 

7 lAarioiV Ifcei KaOrJixevoi, Kal 5taXoyi^o/x€2;oi iv rats KaphCais 
avTciv, "Ti oStos ovto) XoXet pka<r<f>riiJLCas ; rCs bvvarai 

44. &irpo(rlTafcMaMrf)$. Two birds have three explanations to choose 
alive and clean, and cedar wood, and from : (i) Some imagine the 'house' 
scarlet, and hyssop. Cf. Levit. xiv. 4. to have been a dwelling of the humbler 

45. X<Syov, story, connected series class, consisting of only one room, 
of words, as opposed to 0(ui^, which The bearers might reach the roof, used 
merely means, a single sound, the voice, no doubt as a sleeping place, by a 
either of men or beasts. ladder from the outside ; remove the 

II. I — 12. Matt. ix. I — 8 ; Luke covering of earth and tiles, and thus 

V. 17 — 26, are parallel. let down the pallet : or (2) The mul- 

1. St* ^(Ji^MV, "after a lapse of titude were assembled in one of the 
some days. Some Latin MSS. read "large upper rooms" on the first 
here, ^^post octo dies : " it has been story belonging to a house of the better 
conjectured that their originals had class. The bearers went up to the 
hC ^ iifjLepQv. roof by the usual staircase in a comer 

2, cSton-c (iiiKlri, k. r. X. "so that of the inner court, and let down the 
no longer did even the parts about the bed as above described. (3) It has 
door aBbrd room." been supposed that Jesus was standing 

4. Kpdpparof . Latin, grabbatus. imder a boarded verandah running 

dirccrreyairav tJ|v orWy^v. Various round the inside of the court, and that 

ways of explaining this have been it was through this that the sick man 

adopted according to the sort of house was let down. 

in which our Lord is supposed to have 5. &^4o»vrai. Doric for Attic 

been. To suppose, as some have done, iipeivrai, 3rd plur. pf. Pass, of &</>l7ffu. 

that access was gained by merely 7. The best MSS. and editors 

removing the curtain over the im- read ri oCtoj ofJrws \a\ei ; ^XafftfnjueT, 

phivium or inner court, seems incon- "Why doth this man speak thus? he 

sistent with such strong language as blasphemeth," instead of Xakei pXaa- 

i^opO^avres, Rejecting this then, we ^rjfjUas. 

ver. 8—15.] S, MARK'S GOSPEL. 1 1 

8 h^ihfox dfiafyrCas, e! fjJj et;, 6 0e<$;;" Kal €v0i<os imyvovs 6 
'Iqcrovs ry irvevfAaTi avrov, 8ti oiT<as biaXoyC^ovrai iv iavroTs, 

9 etirei; airois, " TC ravra bioKoylC^crOc iv rals KapbCais vyMV ; 
rt ifrnv evKovdrepoVf elTrew r^ irapakuTLKif, ^Afpicavrai aoi at 
dfjLopTCai, ^ €lTT€af, ''Ey€ipai, kolI ipov aov rbv KpilSparov, 

JO Koi ^eptirdrei ; tva bi elbrJT^, on i^ova-lav Ix^t i vios rov 
ivOpdirov i.(l>UvaL iirl rfjs yijs dpLaprtas, {\iy€i r<p irapaXvriK^,) 

11 2o2 kiyta, fy€ipM, koI ipov tov Kpififiarov (rov, Kal {hray€ els 

12 TOV oIkov (Tovy KcU fiyipOf] €v$i(os, Kal Spas tov Kpipfiarov, 
iifjKOev ivavTlov vivTo^V <uar€ i^laracrOai irivras, koX 
bo^iC^iv Thv 0€ov, XiyovTas, "''On ovfieworc oStods eBo/mcv." 

13 Kal i^KOc TToXiv irapd Trjv Oakaaa'av' Kal iras 6 SxXos 

14 rjpxero vpos avrov, Kal ibibaaK€V avTovs. Kal vapdyoDv cTbe 
Aevlv TOV TOV *A\(l>aCoVf Ka$rjfA€vov hrl t6 TcKiiviov, Kal Xiyci 
avT^, "^AkoXovOci fioiJ^ Kal ivaards riKoko'6dri<r€V avTa. 

15 Kai iy€V€TO iv r<p xaraice t<rdai ovtov iv Tjj oIkI(^ avTov, 

8. liriTvo^. 2 aor. part, of ^t- says : ** But all who are saved did not 
yiyptixrKa, confess the confession of the voice and 

T^ irvf^littTi tt*ro(», "by his spirit:" ^^^part ; for of that sort are Matthew, 

can we conceive refer to nothing else P^ilip» Thomas, Levi, and many 

but om- Lord's indwellmg divine others. And Origen (cont Celsmn, 

oatm^. ^^* h sec. 376, edit Migne), acknow- 

m.f co.»*«e frx f«T,- «« ♦!,«•.. «f :« ledges Matthew the publican as an 

^er 7 ^ aP^^l^' ^^t ^s^rts that Levi was only 

m « • 1. 1/- It * disciple. (2) Mark and Luke after 

9. iYiipas raise thyself. mentioning the call of Levi in these 
f pov. I aor. imperat. A. of ofpw. verses, go on to speak of Matthew in 

This verse seems to give the substance the lists of the twelve apostles without 

of what was passing through the minds giving any note to identify Matthew 

of our Lord's adversaries : and in fact with Levi, as it might be supposed 

expands ravra SiaXoyll^etree. Which they would have done if the two names 

power is the easier to claim, that of had belonged to the same person. On 

forgiving sins or healing the sick? the other hand, the patristic testimony 

Undoubtedly the former. But that ve is but slight, especially as Origen in 

may know that I really oossess the the passage quoted seems very fanciful 

latter, I say. Arise, and walk. — distinguishing between James and 

14 — 22. Matt. ix. 9 — 17 ; Luke John, whom he allows to have been 

V. 27 — 39 are parallel. Some have sailors, and Peter, and Andrew who, 

maintained that Matthew and Levi he considers, followed the more refined 

must be distinct persons : because (i) calling oi fisherman. Besides, unless 

there are early traditions which dis- Matthew and Levi be considered one 

tinguish between them : a passage from and the same person, great confusion 

Heracleon preserved in Clem. Alex, is introduced into a narrative otherwise 

Stromata (iV. cap. ix. edit, Migne), perfectly intelligible. 


Kal iroXXol reXcSrai mX dfjuipTcoXol <TvvaviK€ivTO rf .'Iiyorov /cat 
Tois iiaOriTOis avTov * ^<rai; yhp voWol, Koi TJKo\ov6ri<rav avr^. 

1 6 Koi ol ypofjLfiaTels Koi ol ^apia-atoi, lb6vT€9 avrbv icrdCovra 
ficra t£v reAcovcai/ «cal a/iaprcoXcSv, IXeyov rot; fiaOrirais 
avTov, " TC 5n fiera rcSt^ reAcovcSv, Kal diiapT(o\£v i<r6Ui 

17 fcal w&ei;" Kal &K0V(ra9 6 'Iiyorovs K4y€i atSrols, "Ou xp^lav 
i\ov(nv ol hryyovT^s larpov, iAA' oi KaKcis ^x^'^^^% ^'^ i^A^oi; 

18 Kakiaai biKaCovs, iXKa afxaproiXovs €ls iieripoiavy Kal rj<r<w 

16. FpajJiiM'rttSy also called tradition regulating the minutest detail, 
'lawyers,' and 'doctors of the law.' originally communicated by God to 
The existence of such a body is thought Moses, and handed down by regular 
to be alluded to in Prov. xxv. I, "the stages to the men of the Great Syna- 
men of Hezekiah/'andinEccl. xii. 11. gogue, the ancestors of the Scribes. 
After the captivity, they with Ezra Hence the close alliance between the 
forming the men of the Great Syna- two bodies. By the help of this oral 
gogue, collected and arranged the tradition they supported and do sup- 
canonical books of O. T. By them port the doctrine of a resurrection, and 
the hereditary order of priests was of rewards and punishments after 
quite overshadowed, as in earlier times death. This was the tenet which dis- 
it had been by the prophets. They tinguished them more than any other 
formed regular schools for public in- from the Sadducees. To embody and 
struction, to which at first all were preserve this mass of oral tradition, 
admitted gratis, but afterwards a small was formed in the 2nd century after 
fee was exacted. Almost all young Christ the Mishna. They were by far 
men of ability, whether priests or not, the most numerous and popular sect, 
who wished to attain distinction entered and very zealous in obtaining converts. 

themselves as members of the classes, ,« ^_ ,„ ;«*^^,«*i«rr *w.c, ««e 

in which pupils were trained from the ^^?^' ^? ^^terpretrng this pas- 

more simple up to the more recondite ^^ '{^, l^'^l t ^w^. 3 
*. J >.r *u- 1-. rr «.u^ i^— .«- Cloth and new wme to tne lasts and 

oruagwgu^ w* "« £ ^ yet by the disciples of our Lord. They 

famish the money. Tha«^afix«i ^^ ,^ ^ ^ understood of that 
ceremony for admitting tW com- ^ ^ ^^^ inaugurated by 

petent mtotheorier ofscnb« at the , ^^j^ jj^"^l „<,! wnsent to 

age of about thurty-Who^admUted, i^^^' ^^.ed upon the old and worn 
he might either confine hunself to the ^^ jj ^ J^ ^g ^jj^ ^ ^^ 

ordmary busmess of drawing contracts ^^^J^ ▼<■ ««« aL^^^^i^^ :„ ♦« v^ 

i-i ^ J, .. * -x- _u' economy. If any distinction is to be 

like a modem attorney, or, if ambi- ^^^^ between the cloth and the wine, 

tious, devote himself to the absfaiiser it may be this. The former will ref?r 

'^Ij^'^ff^'^rr^n *";.!:, to laWs customs and external obser- 

*opuratoi, hterally separated aenerallv • the latter to the 

ones.' First became a distinct party J^^f^ i^f,Tfc ^' 

in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes spmtuai guts. 

(b. c. 170.) in order to resist the 18. fyrav vi|orTt^oinrft. Some 

adoption of Greek customs. They object to the rendering, **«jA//!^y5w/,'* 

held, as all the religious modem Jews and prefer " werefcLsting^^ L e. at that 

do, the existence of a mass of oral very time. 

ver. 18—24.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 13 

o\ fAa&rjTCu 'loxWov koI ol t&v ^apuraloiv vr)(TTe6ovT€$* kcX 
ipXovrai Koi Xiyovcriv avr^, '* AiarC ol fiaOriral *la>6wov Koi 
ol r&p ^api(raC(ov vriareiovcriv, ol bk crol fiaBrjToi ov vrjarcv' 

19 oucri ;" Kal ewrev avToTs o 'Iijcrovy, " M^ bvvajnrai ol viol rod 
WfXifyoivoSf Iv ^ 6 wiJL<f>los fier avrciv lort, vrj(rT€V€iv ; oaov 
\p6vov iieO* kavToiv Ixovcri tov wfKpCoVf ov bvvairrai vriareveiv 

20 ikeiaovTai hi fjfxipai orav iirapOfj in:* avr&v 6 wiJL(f)CoSf Koi 

21 rore vri<TT€v<rov<nv iv iKcCvais rals fjfiipaLS, OvbcU iirCpkrjfAa 
piKovs iyvd^ov iitippiiirr^i iiii IiultU^ TsdKax& ' el bi iifi, aXpei 
TO TT\rjpa>fia oiStov t6 Kaivov tov vaXatoS, koI x^ipov trxyj'fJM 

22 yCvcrai. Kal ovbels pdXkci olvov viov eU da-Kovs TsaXaiovs * 
ei bi ixrjf p'qo'crei 6 otvos o vios rovs ia-Kovs, koI 6 oXvos ^K\€iTai 
Koi ol da-Kol dTToXoSxrai* ctAAa olvov viov €ls icrKovs Kaivovs 

23 KAI iyivero Trapairopeicadai airbv iv tols adpficun bid 
Tciv (nToplfjLOiv, Kal rjp^avro ol fiadriTal avrov obov TToieiv 

24 tCXXovt€s tovs oraxvas. Kal 01 ^apicraXoi lAeyov avT(^, " '^Ibc, 

^ 18. ol (loO. 'Iwdwov Kal ol tAv the definitions blend and interchange. 

^apuraUiv, Although John himself Thus a family may be dpxcuos, of long 

was entirely free from jealousy at standings though represented by a 

hi^ decreasing and Jesus increasing youth just out of his teens ; but a man 

influence ; still many of his followers advanced in years is ira\at6;. Mnason 

may have felt annoyed at it. And of Cyprus was an old disciple, i, e, a 

this point of ceremonial observance disciple of long standing, dpxtuos being 

was an excellent opportunity for join- used : but he was not necessarily an 

ing their opponents the Pharisees in aged man, iraXou6s; at least S. Luke 

an attack. does not tell us so. 

19. ol viol ToO w|i^6vos. Al- 22. pXnr^v, verb adj. from /SiXXo;. 
ludinig to John iii. 29. &XX& of vov pXifr^ov. Some 

21. *^No one seweth a patch of editors reject this clause: though the 

Unfulled cloth upon an old garment : evidence is hardly sufficient to warrant 

otherwise that which Jills it up which is their doing so. 

new takes away some of the old, and a 23 — 28. Also related by Matt. 

worse rent ensues.'^' Translating in this xiL I — 8; Luke vi. I — 5. 
way I read rh irX'^pufia adrov r^ Koivbp 23. r&v (nropC|M)v, probably masc. 

rod TaXcuoO : other readings are rb subaud dypQv, 

irXiJ/o. dir aiJrou and dv airov t6 vXi/jp, hIShv iroiitv, " to go along ; " does 

in either case we must translate : not seem to bear its literal meaning of 

** otherwise thai which fills up takes constructing a road, but to be used 

away from it, the new from the old,'' intransitively, cf. LXX ; Judges xvii. 

voXoioO, old in respect of time: 8. quoted by Alford, and the only 

d/)xeuof, old in respect oi quality. The similar use that I can find in the whole 

meaning is best seen by examples, as of the Septuagint. 


25 tL troiovartv iv rots (rappaaw, h ovk Ifeori;" Kal avros 
iK€y€V avTol$, " Oufiewore dviyvonTc, tC iiroCrjcre Aapib, ot€ 

26 yjiiUw i(r/jE kcX iircCvaa-cv avTos Kal ol fier ovtov ; irois 
fhrrjXOev eh top oXkov tov &€ov ivl 'AjSuxdap tov dpxi€pi<o^f 
Kol roi/s ipT0V9 rrjs irpoOia-coos i^ayev^ (As ovk Ifeori (paytiv 

27 €l fjifi vols Upevaig koI IbonKe koI toU (rhv air^ oSa-i;" Kal 
iKeyev avTois, *^To a-dfij^arov hia tov UpOpo^vov iyiv€To, ovx 

28 6 6vdp(OTro9 bia to adpfiarov. 'X2ot6 Kvpios iariv 6 vlos tov 
iLvOpdvov Koi TOV <ra/3/3arov." 

26. hr\ ' ApidOap roi) 'ApXiupUtt. a representation of the Hebrew pluralis 

The TOV is omitted in all best editions, dignitatis, and intended as an equiva- 

the word 'A/>x(ep^ws being definite lent for the long dignified form shab- 

enough without it The incident al- bawthcwn. Whatever be the cause, . 

luded to took place (cf. i Sam. xxL) enough has been said to explain how 

while Ahimelech* the priest, 'Abiathar's it is that the N. T. writers use indif- 

father was alive. Soon after, the whole ferently adfi^arov and (rAp^ara to 

family were put to death by SauPs to denote the SabbcUh, If an example 

command, because Ahimelech had be needed, cf. Matt xii. i ; Luke 

thus aided David, Abiathar only iv. 16 : in both places the context 

escaped, fled to David and succeeded shows that a particular day is meant, 

apparently to his father's office. These Moreover, as it was shown above that 

bemg the facts, it will be seen that he shahbawth is sometimes used in O. T. 

is called high priest by anticipation, to express a weekly period, or week ; it 

much as if an Englishman speaking of will not occasion any surprise to find- 

an event that happened in the early that in N. T. o-(i/3/3aTOV and o-d/S/Sara 

days of June, 1837, were to say that it are used indiscriminately = week. The 

happened in the time of Queen Victoria. LXX translators, be it observed, 

Some have explained hrX *Afiiddap as, generally avoid ambiguity by transla- 

** in the church-section called Abia- ting shabbawth where it means a week 

thar," cf. xii. 26. by i^So/ids, or some such word. The 

23 — 28. crdpparov is the Heb. only other usage connected with the 

shabSawthown, itself a longer form of word which can cause perplexity, is 

shabbawth the original meaning of the employing fda aafi. for the jirst 

which is, tAe sabbath, or weekly period day of the week, the cardinal where 

of rest : then, the period included we should expect the ordinal number, 

between sabbath and sabbath, and so. This we conceive to be a trace of 

a week, cf. Levit. xxiiL 15; xxv. 8. Aramaic usage. In Hebrew the ordinal 

By the Septuagint translators the numbers are not unfrequently expressed 

plural word ad^^arfk is generally em- by cardinals ; while m Chaldee and 

ployed as an equivalent for the singular Syriac, the difference in form between 

shabbawth, ad^parop being only used cardinal and ordinal numbers is very 

in the proportion of about i to 3. slight indeed : and in modem Hebrew 

The cause of this preference of the **<me in the week" (lit sabbath) : two 

plural to the singular form, has been in the week (ib.) continue to be the 

sometimes referred to the similarity in terms used to denote Sunday and 

sound between adfi^ra and the Ara- Monday (cf. Fiirst Heb. Concordance, 

maic shabawthaw (cf. Reland, Anti- sv shabbawth, page iioi. col. i). 
quitates Hebraorutn, Part IV. Cap. ix. 27, 28. On this passage Bengel 

edit 1708). Perhaps adp^ara may be says : ** The more obvious meaning of 

ver. 1-S.] S, MARK'S GOSPEL. 1 5 

III. Ka2 €laT]KO€ is6Xiv eb 7771; (n)vay(ay7\v, koL rjv licei 

2 &v0p(O7ros i^paixfjiivriv ixi^v ttiv X'^^P^f '^** Trapcrfipovv avrov 
c! rots ord^jSao-i depairevo-ei avrov, foa Karriyoprjaaxriv avrov, 

3 fcal X^yei t^ iv6p<i7r<j^ r<p i^pap.fiivriv i\ovTi rriv x^ipa, 

4 ""'Eyctpai eis ro p.i(rov^^ Kat A^€i avrots, "''Efeori row 
cdp^curiv iyoBovoiTJaai, fj KaKOiroiTJa'ai ; yjfvxrjv a&crai, fj 

5 iTTOKreirat ; " Oi de co'ico'ira)!^. Ka2 TT€pipk€\lrip,€vos avrovs 
li€T dpyrjSt avXXvTToviJLCvos iitl Tjj iroipdaci rrjs Kapblas aiSrcSv, 
kiy€i r<p ivOpiiiTf^^ ''"Ektcivov Trjv x^lpd cov." Kal i^ircive, 

6 Kol AiroKarcora^iy ^ X^^P avrov vyi^s a>s ^ SAXiy Kal 
i(€\06vT€s ol <Papiaaxoi fvOiois fi€Ta rcoz; ^HpaibLovaiv avp.^ov-' 
Xiov iitolovv Kar avrov, ottods avTov drrokiaiixn. 

7 Kal o ^Irjoovs ave)((dpria-€ fierh rc3y fiadTjroiv avrov vpos 
rffv OdKaao'av' Koi ttoKv ttXtjOos drro rrjs raAiAatas r/KoXotJ- 

8 Orjoav avr^, kgX irro rrjs ^lovbaCas, koI irrd ^l€poarok6pMv, 

the grand enigma is : Whatever right 5. 6pYf)s. The more settled feeling 

each human being has over the Sabbath, of anger as opposed to Ovfi6s, the tran- 

that I too have. The nobler, but sient passionate disturbance of the 

owing to the circumstances of the feelings : while vapopyifffids (£ph. iv. 

time the hidden meaning, is : The 26. only) is the feeling of irritation or 

object of appointing the Sabbath is the exasperation which must at once be 

well-being of man in body and soul ; dismissed. 

this well-being the Son of man ought 6. 'Hp«»8iavAv. Scarcely a com- 

to procure, and in order to gain mis pact or well defined parly : but rather 

object He has power over all things, those either of the Pharisees or Sad- 

and specially over the Sabbath, ap- ducees, who bore quietly Herod's 

pointed as it was for the sake of man ; authority : in the former case because 

and to gain this object He rightly they considered it the only substitute 

directs every use of the Sabbath. for direct foreign rule ; in the latter, 

III. I — 5. Also related by Matt, because they acquiesced in the amalga- 

xii. 9 — 13. and Luke vL 6 — 10. mation of Jewish and heathen habits. 

I. &v6p«Mros* He is said to be a 7 — 12. Probably we have here the 

mason in the ** Gospel according to the substance of Matt. xii. 15 — 21 ; Luke 

Hebrews:'' probably the Aramaic copy vi. 17 — 19. 
of S. Matthew with interpolations. 8. *I^KMroX^|Awv. To give any 

IEnpa|&|Uvi)V. The participle shows, adequate account of this city of seven- 

that the withering was the result of a teen sieges, within the limits of a note 

wound or disease, the hand having would be impossible : original name 

been originally sound. (cf. Gen. xiv. 18.) seems to have been 

4, Bengel says :" Not to preserve *^skalem^" meaning possibly *^ high' 

is to destroy — a direct antithesis. To place." Afterwards (Judges xix. 10.) 

preserve life is the whole — to benefit the place was called after the occupants, 

IS a part, and so they are opposed to Jebus. From the accoimt in 2 Sam. 

one another," v. 6. cf. i Chron. xi. 4. it would seem 

1 6 S. MARK'S GOSPEL. [Ch. III. 

KoX iiro Tr\% 'ISov/juifa?, koX iripav rov ^lopddvov' Koi ol Tt€pL 

Tvpov KoX 2td(02;a, vK^Oos iroXv, i.KOV(ravT€s Saa iiroUt, rjKOov 

9 Ttphs avTov, Kal clire tols fiaOrirals avrov, tva irXotdpiov 

lo vpotrKapT€pfi avT(^, did top 6x\ov, tva fjJ^ OXi^tofriv aOrov* 

IloXKiAs yap iOepdireva^v, &<tt€ iTrnrCTrreiv atjT^, tva avTov 

that the city had got the name of Mount Zion on the w. with the Lower 

Jerusalem before it was taken by City or Mount Moriah on the E. ; the 

David early in his reign. The dual latter hill was chiefly covered by the 

termination -ayim (represented by -|ia Temple buildings, as it now is by the 

'em) is thought to point to the Upper Mahommedan sanctuary, 

and Lower Cities. Salem, as forming 'I8ov|&cUas. The Greek name for 

part of Jerusalem, is considered to be Edom, /. e. red, so called from the ruddy 

written by defective orthography for colour of the mountains. The later 

** SAawlowm, peace^ The meaning of name first occurs after the captivity. It 

Jtru- is not so clear. Authorities are was originally a mountainous territory 

divided between vision^ worships pos- extending from the SE. end of the Dead 

session^ or abode of peace. The most Sea to the N. end of the Gulf of Elath : 

decisive sieges which the city'imder- after the Jewish monarchy began to 

went were, when captured by David ; grow weak the Edomites extended 

by Nebuchadnezzar, for the second their frontiers. In the seventh century 

time after an interval of eleven years the Mahommedans overran Idumaea, 

between the two sieges — the commence- and it has remained a desolate country 

ment of the captivity (cf. 2 Kings almost up to the present time. 

xxiv. lo — 18; XXV. i. sqq. and Jer. ir^pav roO 'lopSdvov. The strip of 

lii. passim) : by Herod the Great with territory E. of the river, formerly 

the aid of the Romans — the departure occupied by half the tribe of Manassen 

of the sceptre from Judah ; and by on the N ; the tribe of Gad in the 

Titus — ^the final extinction of the Jewish middle, and the tribe of Reuben on 

polity. It stands on the summit of a the s. At the time of Christ it was 

mountainous ridge, ' the mountains of divided into Batansea and Persea. 

Ephraim and lull-country of Judah,* Tiipov, Heb. Tsour^ a rock. About 

that runs from the plain of Esdraelon 30 miles from Nazareth, situated partly 

on the N. to about as far as the s. end on an island and partly on the main- 

of the Dead Sea. It is distant 32 land. First mentioned Josh. xix. 29. 

miles w. of the Mediterranean ; iSe. of as a strong city on the borders of the 

Jordan; 20 N. of Hebron, and 36. s. tribe of Asher. In the time of Solomon 

of Samaria. The ground on which there was a close connexion between 

the city stands is cut off from the Tyre and Jerusalem. After that it was 

neighbouring country by deep valleys ; thrice besieged — ^by Shalmaneser ; by 

on the e. is the valley of the Kidron Nebuchadnezzar, and by Alexander the 

or Jehoshaphat, running N. and s. ; Great. From each of these sieges it 

on the w. is the Valley of Hinnom, rapidly recovered, and notwithstanding 

which runs for some time from N. to the loss of its independence under 

s. and then turns eastwards, unites Augustus, continued a flourishing town 

with the vale of the Kidron, and the until the close of the thirteenth century, 

two run in a south-easterly direction when, after the capture of Acre by the 

to the Dead Sea. The city itself is Saracens, the inhabitants of Tyre 

divided into Upper and Lower by abandoned their town without strikmg 

another valley, over which was a a blow. Since that time it has always 

bridge connecting the Upper City or been a mere fishing village. 

ver. 11—17.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 17 

11 iy^mrraiy Sa-ot €l\ov fjiiariyas' Kot rh irvevfiaTa ra iKiOapra, 
Stov avTov i6€(&p€L, TTpoa-iTninev avr^, koL iKpaC^, kiyovra, 

12 '^"Otl aif eX 6 vlbs rod 0eov." Kal iroWa incTCplt aurots, 

13 Iva fAti avTov (fxxvepbv 'iroc^o-axri. Kal ava^aCv^i €h to Spos, 
Kai irpocrKaXeiTai ots rjOcKcv avros' icol aTrfjKOov irpbi avrov. 

14 Kal iTroCrj<r€ btibcna, tva (Scri \jl€t airoVy koX tua iTTOtrriWri 

15 avTovs Kqpf6iT(r€W, kcX fx^iP i^ova-Cav BcpaireiieLV Ths voa-ovs, 

16 xal iKp6XK€iv Th baiixovia' koI iiriOrjKe r<p ^Cikhvi Svofxa 

17 lUrpoV Kol 'Idfcco^ov rhv tov ZejScdatov, ical ^loiivvrjv rhv 

8. 2i8£va. Heb. Tsidown : the and to the degree of prominence after- 

meaning is doubtful ; according to wards attaint, owing to natural cha- 

some, 'fishing,* according to others, racter. In the first group the two 

'a fort' Modem name Saida, near earlier lists, those of Matthew and Luke, 

the base of the Lebanon, twenty miles Gospdy give the names according to 

N. of Tyre, in the border of the tribe of relationship. Afterwards (Mark, and 

Asher, to whom it was allotted but Luke, Acts) the three favoured ones 

never conquered by them. Zidon was take the lead. Of course in the fourth 

probably founded somewhat earlier list the traitor's name is omitted : the 

than Tyre. During the time of fact of his treachery is noticed by all 

Solomon, and until Tyre was besieged three Synoptists. 
by Ni^buchadnezzar, Zidon seems to 17. Boav^ryls. Mark is the only 

have been tributary to its neighbour, evangelist who records this. Usually 

From that time up to its revolt firom derived from Heb. " benay r^esh^"* 

the Persians, and overthrow about sons of tumult, u q, thunder. As, 

B. c. 350, it was the more important it is by no means certain that 

town. In the time of Christ it had r^esh will bear this meaning, which 

again become a flourishing- place, cele- however, seems favoured by the last 

brated for its study of the sciences, clause in the verse ; others derive it 

Zidon is now a town of about 5000 from *^ benay rigshaw,'' children of the 

inhabitants, having never sunk to so assembly, considering that this is an 

low an ebb as Tyre. allusion to the two scribes who at the 

II. 8rav cOc^pci. This use of meetings of the Sanhedrim sat one on 

Ihav, with middle and not conjunctive each side of the president, and collected 

mood is a mark of late Greek. the votes in the one case of acquittal, 

13 — 19. In Matt. X. I — ^4 ; Luke in the other of condemnation. This 

vi. 12 — 16. • derivation gains some support from the 

14. itroCn<rc= appointed, cf. LXX. request afterwards made that they 

I Sam. xii. o. fidprvs Ki^pios 6 von/iffas might sit, the one on the right hand, 

t6p Mwucr^y kciI rhv *Aapd>p, the other on the left of Christ in His 

16 — 19, This passage with Matt. Kingdom ; but seems untenable in the 

X. 2 — ^4 ; Luke vi. 13 — 16. and Acts face of the authoritative interpretation, 

1. 13. make up four lists of apostles. 6 effriv. Trench points out that if the 

It will be observed that the names fall former derivation be adopted, it is a 

into three sets of four names each, mistake to suppose that the name 

The first name in each set is always was given as prophetic of their con- 

the same, viz. Peter, Philip, James the duct in wishing to call down fire on 

son of Alph^us. This order may be the inhospitable Samaritans. That 

referred to priority in the summons, was conduct which received censure, 


1 8 S. MARK'S GOSPEL. [Ch. III. 

JAdsj^v To\i ^laKdpoW koX iviOriKev avroTs dvdfAara Boavepy^?^ 

i8 5 i<mv, Tlol ppovrrjs* koL *Avbp4ap, koI ^CXimrov, Koi 

BapddKoiJMioVf Kcu MaT$aMV, koX &(oimv, koI ^Iixa>Pov rov 

and it is unlikely that such a name The whole city is in consequence 
would be blended with censure, swallowed up, except the part on which 
Whatever quality in the sons of the Christians are standing. Jesus 
Zebedee it alludes to must be one comes down, rebukes Plulip and 
deserving praise not blame. That restores to light all those who had 
James and John are never afterwards been swallowed up, except the pro- 
called by this name, is best explained consul and the seipent that was wor- 
by the fact that it would have been shipped by the idolaters. The inhabi- 
impossible to distinguish which was tants repent, release Bartholomew, but 
meant if the name had been used. are not allowed to do so to Philip. 
i^ ^CXvinrov. Summoned by Christ He dies, and from the spot there 
Himself to be a disciple, cf. Tohn L 43. springs up a vine, close to which a 
from which it appears diat he was the churdi is built, 
first to receive such a summons. After Bap0oXo|iaiov, Heb. ' bar TalmtU^'* 
this accoimt the notices of him are i, e, son of Talmai. Usually considered 
scanty, the name in the Synoptic the same person as Nathanael, '* God 
Gospds only occurs in the lists of the hath given.'' The name Bartholomew 
twelve. From John we learn that it is never found out of the Synoptic 
was Philip to whom Jesus put the Gospels, and there only in the lists of 
searching question, *' Whence shall we Apostles, the name Nathanael never 
buy bread mat these may eat?" It was out of S. John. He was a native of 
to Philip that the Greeks, desirous of Cana in Galilee, brought by Pl|ilip to 
an interview with Jesus, made their our Lord, and addr^sed by Him as 
first application. And it is he who '* an Israelite indeed in whom there is 
begs Jesus to show ** them the Father no guile " (John i. 47. sq.). The only 
and it sufiiceth." John xiv. S. Accord- other notice we have of him is John 
ing to the apocrvphal Acts, Philip xxi. 2. where he is mentioned as 
disputed with tne philosophers at present when Jesus made Himself 
Athens. They, unable to refute him, known at the Sea of Tiberias. The 
sent to Jerusalem for assistance. The tradition as given in the Acts bearing 
high-priest with 500 men arrive. All his name is, that he preached in India, 
except the high-priest are convinced converting the king, Polvmius, by the 
bv tne appearance of Tesus in glory, wonders that attended nis presence. 
The high-priest is swallowed up by a Polymius is baptized and abdicates, 
chasm that opens, first as far as the Some time after ^styages the late 
knees, then up to the waist, then up king's elder brother, at the instigation 
to the neck. At last, remaining still of the unbelieving faction, has Bartho- 
obstinate, he disappears altogether, lomew seized, l^ten and beheaded. 
Philip baptizes a great number, founds His remains were transferred to the 
a church and remains two years at island of Liparis. 
Athens. Another chapter of the same MarOatov, Heb. Mattaniak, i. e. 
book tells how he, with his sister "gift of Jah." As has been said 
Mariamne and Bartholomew one of the already (ii. 14. ) Matthew and Levi 
70 disciples, are seized by order of the are two names for the same Apostle, 
proconsul at Hierapolis. Philip and He was a porHtor or underling em- 
Bartholomew are hanged. Philip in- ployed by the rich companies of pub- 
vokes a curse on the city contrary to licani — Romans of the equestrian order, 
the wish of John, who has suddenly who farmed the taxes. Besides the 
appeared, and his other companions, account of his summons from the 


ver. 19.] S MARK'S GOSPEL* I9 

roS 'AA^afov^ icol 0addaibv, mX XCfuava tov KavavCrriv, 
19 Kal 'lovdoj; 'larxapKiir?/!', 6; kcU irapiboiKev avrov. 

receipt of custom, the entertainment describe his journey to India, the 

which followed, and the insertion of country that fell to him by lot Arrived 

his name among the twelve, we have there, he undertakes to build for the 

positively no mention of him in the king of the district a palace at some 

Scriptures. The apooyphal tradition distance from the capital. The money 

respecting him is, that on the separa- and materials with which he is fiir- 

tion of the twelve apostles, the country nished, he expends in relieving all the 

of the Anthropophagi falls to his lot. sick and destitute. On finding how 

Soon after entering Myma, the chief the money is spent, the king throws 

city, his eyes are put out and he is Thomas into prison. ' Meanwhile, the 

cast into prison, whence he is released king's brother Gad dies, and the dis- 

by Andrew, df. L 29. note. Some embodied spirit sees the splendid 

time after this, Matdiew returns to palace built of Thomas' good works. 

Myma, casts out evil spirits from the The angels restore the spirit to its 

wife, son and daughter-in-law of the body, and Gad begs his brother not to 

king. After working several other destroy- the Christian stranger since he 

miracles, Matthew is captured and has built for the king a splendid palace 

ordered to be burnt. Since fire has in heaven. Conversion and baptism 

no effect upon him, the images of the follow as usual. Thomas is ultimately 

gods are brought, but the fire bums up put to death by Misdeus, the king of 

them and several soldiers, then assumes another district whose relations he had 

the shape of a dragon and drives the converted. 

king hither and thither. At Matthew's 'IdKMpov rbv toO 'AX^Cov. 
intercession the fire is checked. Mat- Usually considered to be the James 
thew expires and is buried in the sea. who is elsewhere called, *' the Lord's 
The king is finally convinced by the brother," — ^the author of the Catholic 
reappearance of Matthew on the sur&ce Epistle of that name. For a discussion 
of the water, is baptized and becomes of the degree of relationship involved 
a church-officer. in the term ddeX^^s, as well as of the 
18. OM|iav, Heb. Thcwtiiy "a twin." view which rejects this hypothesis, see 
Best known for the incredulous way in the Appendix. Assuming that the 
which he received the account of our ordinary opinion is correct, we find 
Lord's resurrection. His behaviour that he was a married man (i Cor. ix. 
then agrees well with the words : 5. )» the son of Alphaeus or Clopas and 
"Lord we know not whither thou Mary, and the brother of Joses, Judas, 
goest, and how can we know the way?" Simon, and some sisters. This is the 
uttered when Jesus foretold his depar- James to whom Jesus is said to have 
ture (John xiv. 5.) and with the re- specially appeared after His Resur- 
mark : " Let us also go that we may rection (i Cor. xv. 7). He speedily 
die with him" (John xi. 16.), made rose to great eminence, being appointed 
shortly before the raising of Lazams. as tradition asserts, the first bishop of 
These three incidents, all recorded by Jerusalem. In A. D. 50, at the council 
John only, are the sum of what we are described in Acts xv. he acts as presi- 
told of him — they all denote a loving dent, and from the way in which he is 
but anxious heart, whose very affection spoken of by Paul (Gal. ii. 9. 12.) it is 
urges it to despond. There is extant clear that his position was one of great 
under the name of this apostle a Gospel authori^ : especially among those con- 
describing the infancy of Jesus ; a mis- verts who continued strict adherents 
chievous performance in which traces to the Ceremonial Law. According 
of the Ebionite heresy may be found, to the lengthy account of Hegesippus, 
The apocryphal acts bearing his name, preserved by Eusebius, H. E. 11. 23. he, 


having a great reputation for sanctity, ciple of Christ after heing a follower 

was urged by the Scribes and Pharisees of John the Baptist It goes on to 

to address the people from the pinnacle tell how Abgarus, toparch of Edessa, 

of the temple, in the hope that he shortly before Christ s passion sent a 

would enjoin obedience to the Law. letter requesting Him to come and live 

On his opening his speech by declaring at Edessa, to avoid the snares of the 

that Jesus was the Messiah, now the Jews, Jesus declines, but sends back 

glorified Son of God, they threw him a towel on which His likeness had 

headlong to the ground, and cast stones become miraculously impressed. After 

at him while he prayed that they might the Ascension Thaddaeus went to 

be forgiven. Hegesippus continues Edessa and baptized Abgarus with a 

by saying that he was biuied where he number of his subjects. He is said 

fell, and that the destruction of the to have died a natural death at 

city which immediately followed was Beyrout. 

looked on by many as a divine punish- 2Cp»va rhv KavavCn)V. By the 

ment for this crime. term Canaanite of this passage, and 

1 8. SoSSatov. Unless we impute Matt. x. 4. is meant, not a native of 

great ignorance or carelessness to one of Canaan or Cana, but a member of the 

the Evangelists, it is almost impossible sect of the zealots for which the Heb. 

to avoid concluding that the Judas, is Kinnawh : the Greek equivalent is 

brother or son of James mentioned in Zelotes as Luke has it (Luke vi. 15 ; 

Luke's two lists (Luke vi. 16 ; Acts L Acts i, 13). Out of the four lists we 

13.) is the same person as the Lebbaeus have mentioned, his name never is 

or Thaddaeus of Matt. x. 3. and of this foimd in the Scriptures. There are a 

list. As to the etymology of the names, few imtrustworthy traditions which say 

of course Judas is the Greek form erf that he was the Simon of Matthew 

Judah, **« praised one i"*"^ unsuccessful xiiL 55; Mark vi. 3. one of our Lord's 

attempts have been made to connect brethren, and that he was the Symeon 

Lebbaeus and Thaddaeus with a common afterwards bishop of Jerusalem, that he 

Hebrew origin : arguing that the former preached in Egypt and the Cyrenaica, 

meant * hearty* from Heb. */s3,' a and was crucified in Judaea during 

heart : and the latter *' pectorostts ' from Domitian's reign. All this rests on 

Thad or Shades, pectus. Unfortunately very slight authority, 

the major premiss — ^that Shad = pectus 'lowav *I<rK«ipu6TT|V. Probably 

— being untrue the whole theory falls Iscariot means ^^ Ish-JCerioth^''^ native 

to the ground. Others have supposed of a town in Judah (cf. Josh. xv. 25. ) 

that Thaddaeus is connected with of that name. Some accepting this 

Thowdahj "praise," and so means have remarked on the fact, that while 

much the same as Judas, a supposition the natives of the despised Galilee all 

hardly warranted by the form of the proved faithful, it was the royal and 

word. This apostle shortly before favoured tribe which supplied the only 

the betrayal (John xiv. 22.) ques- unfaithful apostie. Others have ob- 

tions our Lord about the nature of the jected to this derivation, as it would 

manifestation to be made to them place him in a different position from 

though not to the world. He is the other eleven who were probably to 

generally considered the author of the a man Galilean peasants, and have 

Epistle of Jude : though some deny proposed several derivations charac- 

this, considering that neither James terised by ingenuity and fancifulness 

nor Jude, though brethren of Jesus, rather than by any intrinsic value. I 

and the writers of the respective subjoin a few : (i) Native of Kartha 

Epistles, were of the niraiber of the in Galilee : (2) Of the tribe of Issachar, 

twelve. This opinion receives some sup- *l(rKapi(»jrrjs beingtaken aslo-axa/xtfrnys. 

port from the Apocryphal Acta Thad- (3) He of the leather, i.e. *ish scortea,* 

daei (edit. Tisch), which makes him a because he had the bag. The Synoptic 

native of Edessa, who became a dis- evangelists tell us nothing about him 

ver. 20— 1?9.1 S, MARK'S GOSPEL, 21 

20 Kal ipxoirrai ds oXkov' koL avvipxeTai triXiv oxkos, &(tt€ 

21 firi b6va<r$€u airrovs firJT€ iprov <f)ay€lv, Kal i.KovaavT€S ol 
Trap* avTOV i^kOov Kparrja-ai avTov, *E\€yov yhp, ""Ort 

22 Ifi^oTTj." Kal ol ypaiiixareis ol iiro ^lepoa-oXviMov Kara^avrcs 
ikeyov, "*'Oti BccACe^oiX Ixet," Kal ''''On iv T<p ipxpvn 

23 T<i5i^ baxpuovCoiv iKp6XK€i Th dat/xJi^tcu'* Kal Trpoa-KaXccrificvos 

24 avTovs, iv vapafiokais IXeycv aurow, "ITcSs buvarai Xaravas 
Sararov ^icjSaAAeu; ; fcal iav fiaa-iXcCa €(f> iavrriv ii€pi<rOjj^ 01J 

25 dt^i^arai ora^rai ff Paaikcla iKcCvrj' Kal 1^ oUCa i<f)^ kavrriv 

26 fi€pi(r0^f ov bAvarai araOrjvai fj oUCa iKcCvri' Kal cZ 6 ^aravas 
ia^crrq i(f) kavrov Kal ii^iiipia-Tai, ov bvvarai araOrjvai, &XXa 

27 riXos €X€U Ovbcls bivarai ra aKeirj tov layypov, €la-€\6o>v 
fh rrfv oIkCov avrov, biapiria-ax, iav fifj isp&Tov rov Icryypov 

28 81J077, kclL t6t€ Trjv oIkCov avTov bLapTria-eu ^Apifjv X^o) vpLiv, 
5ri mvTa a<^€^arrrai tol ayuaprfipxira tols vlois t£v iLvSpciiroDV, 

29 fcol al ^a(r<f}rjfiCai 6<Tas av p\aa'<l>rifirj<Taia'u;' bs 5' av /SXaor- 

beyond the betrayal and its attendant was fiill of people, could hardly fail to 

circumstances. From John vi, 70. we end in His receiving the kingdom that 

learn that Jesus predicted his faithless- belonged to Him. 

ness in the words, ** Have not I chosen 21. i(^aTi|. The word denotes 

you twelve, and one of you is a devil : * that distraction of the mind from terror 

—and that he grumbled at Mary's which when long continued becomes 

wastefuhiess m using costly ointment fj,apla : on the other hand, Odfij^os is 

to anoint Jesus* feet shortly before the the awe felt at something unusual, and 

Crucifixion (xiL 4). His duty seems is not unfrequently the beginning of 

to have been to keep the bag contain- iKtrraais (cf. Webster, N. T. Gram, 

ing the funds of the whole party. Some p 209) 

and that the effect of this was to alienate . ^^ ., *: * . , _ iTv 

!,;«, «,«..^ o«^ «,,^,.^ fr^rv. j-ii^ Mocf^r '' ^- ^^ ^hc towcr in heaven which 
nim more and more irom rlis Master o.. j*.'i-i-'*. j 

and render His company loathsome. ^^"17^ 'T^^^^t^'T 

This combined with dLpVointed pride ^°"\. ^^.,f^' ^^ °^ v?^'" 

and ambition, on findingUat his hopes ^^''"^.r, V w^, ''°i?'"Pf4 <^ 

of advancement and lealth were to E''™?- 'f- * ^ ,•; *\ J^ 'i«"7»- 

be efTectuaUy frustrated by Christ's i''^!l'°7f^,m^'in^i.H tt nf^ .m'I 

ignominious death, has bein thought J^IJ^rlr^ P , P^''^,. I 

tS motive that urged him by way by Ae Jews, has not, webeheve, much 

of revenge to betray His Master. " "*** "Pp°- .,,,.„ 

Others have thought that his object in , 23- Soravos, Heb. Sawtawn an 

the betrayal may have been to force *^^^*?fy "J accuser. c£ Zech. lu. i, 2, 

from Jesus an assertion of His claims ^^d Job 1. 6. sqq. 

to be recognised as Messiah : such 28. A^cMjircnu. 3 sing, fut pass. 

daims if toMe at a time when the city of i^rnu. 

22 s. MARICS GOSPEL. [Ch. IV. 

i^wi^ €lj TO Uvaiiia to "Aytov, ovk Ixet &<f>€(nv tls tov 
30 auava, 2AA' Ivoxos i(mv ala>vCov KpCa-em/* ^Ori Ikeyov, 
^1 " HvevfjLa iLKa&apTov l)(€i,** "EpxovTai o3v ol iJb€X<l>ol koL 97 

jJL'qTrip avTOv, Kal ^fo) loroires iTrioTciKav vpos avTov, 

32 <f><ovovvT€s avT6v. Koi iKaOr^To oxKos ircpl aiJrJi^' cXirov bi 
ai7r^9 '* 'I60V, 17 firJTTjp <rov Kal ol db€\<f)oC gov l((o fryroSor^ ore." 

33 Kal iv^KpCOri avrots, Xiytav^ "TCs iariv fj ixi^Trip fiov fj ol 

34 ib€\<poC fjLov ; " Kal Trept/SAe^/ra/mei^o? KvuKtp tovs ircpl ovtov 
KaOrifiivovSf Acyet, ""ibe, fj I'.'qrqp fjLOV ical ol ddeX^ot fAov 

35 "^O? y^p ii' ttoii^ot; to OiKrjiia tov Scov, oStos ibeK^os fwv 
Koi ddeX^i; fiov Koi fAT^rrip iarC" 

lY. Kal mXiv ijp^aTO bLbia-Kctv irapa 7-171; 6a\cLar<r(W Kal 
arvvifJxOri irpos avTov 3\Kos woXvs, wore avTov ip,RavTa eJs to 
TsXoXov KaOrjaOai kv r^ BaXaatrri* kox i^as 6 6}(\os vpos Trjv 

2 0aXao'o-ai; iisl Ttjs yrjs ijv, Kal ibCbaa-Kev avrovs iv vapa- 

3 jSoAa?? TToXXi. Kal l\€y€V avTols iv rjj bibaxy ovtov, 

4 ** 'Ajcoiferc. 'I5ov, i^KOcv 6 cntcCpoiv tov oireipaL' Kal iyivero 
iv r<p crn^lp€iVy o pkv i'n€<T€ iraph Tijv Sbov, Kal rjKOe ret irerttva 

5 TOV ovpavov Kal KaTi<l>aycv avT6. "AXXo bi ineffcv ivl rd 
7r6Tp(S6e9, Sttov ovk el;(c yijv iroXXrjv* Kal evOioDS i(aviT€iK€, 

6 bi^ rh firi lt)(€iv (BiOos yfjs' ^\lov bi ivaTclXavTos iKavixarCadrj, 

29. For KpCofMS, almost all the to put side by side, and so compare, 

best MSS. read d^w/yn^Aiaros. The For TapafioXij John always uses Ta/>oi- 

later reading has crept in as a gloss on fda, a word never found in the Synop- 

dfidpnfffia, here used in an unusual tists, as wapa^oKii is never found in his 

sense, that of the effect or result of sin, Gospel. In ordinary Greek, vcLpoifda 

i. e, punishment = a proverb^ between which and vapa.- 

Sin against the Holy Ghost seems /3o\^ the chief difference is, that Ta/>a- 

to be, not so much any particular sin /SoXi^ is a longer rapoifda. Again, the 

or class of sins, as a final and obdurate parable differs from the fable, because 

continuance in wickedness despite of we never find introduced in the parable 

all the calls of God to repentance, anything unnatural, such as speaking 

joined with a desperation of the mercy beasts or trees ; and from the myth 

of God (cf. Browne on Art. XVI. pp. because in that the story is the chief 

360 — 363, sixth edit.) point, and unreflecting persons receive 

31. ol dScX4>oL For a considera- it as the truth. The allegory differs 

tion of the relationship implied by this, from the parable because an allegory 

see the Appendix. is self-interpreting ; the imaginary 

IV. I. OdXeunrav, an inland sea persons and things declare by their 

like the Caspian. «'Aa7os, a largfe ex- names or conduct what they are. 
panseofsea such as the German Ocean. 3 — 8. This parable is related by 

2. iropoPoXAts, from Trapd-pdWw^ Matt. xiii. 3 — 9 ; Luke viii. 5 — 8. 

ver. 7—20.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 23 

«cou hih rh fi)i Ixjew pC^av iirfpipBrj. Kal &XXo iTf€<T€V e!$ tos 

7 iiKiofOai* KcH ivipri(rav al S,Kav0ai, Kci avviirvi^cw avrh, koI 

8 Kapirov ovk lda)K€. Kal SXko fv€<T€V €ls rrfv yrjv ttiv KoXrjv' 
Koi ibCbov KapTTov ivafiaCvovra kolL av^ipovra, Kal itf^epev %v 

9 Tpii.KovTa KcX %v i^KOvra, icol %v iKarovJ" Kal lAryev avrols, 

10 " 'O IxoDv cJto aK(y6€iv ifcovira). * ''Ore bi kyiv^ro KaTopAvas^ 
rjp<iTrj<rav avrbv ol ir^pl avrbv triv rots bdbcKa ttjv irapaPoXrjvm 

11 Kal lAeyci; avrois, '^^Tpliv biborai yv&vai rh pLvarripiov rrjs 
Paa-iKeCas tov 06Ov* iKcCvois bi tois ii<o, iv Trapafiokals rh 

12 ir63rra yCv€Tai' tva pkiirovres pkivaxri, ical [irj 15&>(ri* ical 
iKoiovT€S iiKoiciiG'i, Kal p,ii avvici(ri' fi^irore ivi(rTpi\lf(i>cri, koI 

13 i<f)€0ii avTois rh hiiapTrjpMra*' Kal kiyci ainrois, " Ovk otbaTc 
rriv ttapafioX^v Toirqv ; kolL ism irdo-as rav TrapafioXhs 

14 yvcocrecr^e ; *0 aircCpoiv tov \6yov (nretpet. OSroi bi clo'tv 

15 ol iraph rriv 6bhv, Svov (nreCperai 6 Xoyos, koI Srav iKaCcroixriVy 
€i$i(09 IpX'STai 6 ^aravas Kal alpei rhv X6yov rbv itntappAvov 

16 iv rais KapbCais avr&v. Kal ovtoC ela-iv 6px>Cu>s ol ivl rh 
Trerpdbri (nr€ip6p,€Voi, o\, orav iKovaraxrt tov koyov, €V$i<»>s 
p,€TiL xapas kap,pivov(nv avrbv, xol otSk e^ovo-i pC^av iv 

17 iavTolSt iXKh irpoaKaipoC cla-iv clra ycvofiivrfs 0\C\jf€<as fj 

18 dicoy/mov 5ta tov \6yov, eiOiois CTKavbaklCovrai, Kal oStoC 
€l<nv ol fk ras iKivOas aiT€ip6p^voi, oirol fla-iv ol rbv 

19 Xoyov i.KovovT€S3 Kol al p,ipipLvaL tov al&vos Toiirov, Kal fj 
ivoTi] TOV vkovTOVt KoL al TTcpl ra Xoiira iinOvpiCai €ltnrop€v6' 

20 ii€vai (TvpiTfvCyova-i rbv X6yov, Kal iKopiros ylv^rax, KaL ovtoC 

12. awUkn. 3rd plur. conj. 15. lo<irap|Uvoir, part. perf. Pass, 

pres. ffvUijfu. &4^» 3rd sing. conj. arelpw. 
I aor. PaK. i.iA7iiu, ^ ,..,., _ 17. OXC^rctts, from <?M/3«v, to 

One object served by this kmd of Yii. pressure, hence the distress 

t«ichin& was to keep the knowledge of J^j,,^ therefrom. aremx<ada {ar^irfi 

tiie truth from those unfit to receive it ^ j narrow space, and so, trouble. 
Another purpose was, by illustrating - - /,..*,. 

and brin^ home the doctrine to U^ ^ '9- jOptJivo, from ^e^f, lit* ViJ- 

mind to render those capable 6f re- *racttng anxiety, 
ceiving the truth better able to remem- aU&v, the Latin scecuhtm. The 

ber it various circumstances which, when 

14 — 20. Interpretation. Also combined make up this passing world 

given by Matt. xiiL 18 — 23 ; Luke in which we live. Ko<r|M>f, Latin, 

viii. II — 15. mundus, *^ t/ie universe,"*' 

24 .S". MARK'S GOSPEL. [Ch. IV. 

tlffw ol hfi iT\v yfjv Triv KoXrjv (rtrcLpivTeSf otnves ixovoviri 
Tov \6yov KoL irapaibixpVTtu, jcal KCL(yiro<l>opova'iv, iv rpiJiKOVTa, 
K€u iv t^rJKOvTa, Jcal iv tKarov" 

21 Kal iXcycv avroh, ** MrJTi 6 k^x^os ipxercu, tva vvb rbv 
fiobiov T€0^, fj virb TTiv kklirriv; ovx tva htl t^v Xvxvlav 

22 iiriTcOy ; Oi5 yip iarC u jc/wtttoi;, h iav [irj <l>a»€p(aO^' ovlik 
iyivero iiroKpvipov, &\)C ha €h <l>av€p6v ikdri. Elris Hx'^i 

23 oira iKov€Uf, iKovercoJ* Kal iXeyev avrols, "BA^ircre tC 

24 dxovcre. 'Ev <^ fiirpff^ /xcrpcire, fierpriOrjo'CTa^ ipXp, Kal irpoa-^ 

25 T€^(r€rai vfuv toIs aKovovoriv, *^0s yap tiv Ixil^ ^Orja-erai 
avT^* Kol is oiJK lx^^9 '^^ ^ ^X^^ ipOrjaerai iv avrov." 

26 Kal ikcyev, " OSt(os i(rriv 17 fiaaikela tov Gcov, (Ss iav 

27 ivOpayiros pikp rbv tmopov M rris yrjs, Koi KaOevbg Jcal 
iyeCprjrai vvKra xal fifiipav, Kal 6 air6pos ftkaarAvri Kal firjKV- 

28 vqrai &s ovk othev avrSs. AvTopArq yap 17 yrj xapvo^pei, 
irpoiTov x^/>'"ov, €iTa ordj^ui;, elra Trkjjpri aiTov iv T<p oTclxvt* 

2a cnroflvrct. 2 aor. Pass, part same as the difference between our 

cvclpuf. * who' and ^ whoever^' ^ where' and 

iv (ter). There seems good reason ^wherever' It must not be confounded 
for reading in all three instances in this with the other ^dF (eZ-dy), which intro- 
verse h the preposition, and not hf the duces the protasis of a hypothetic state- 
neuter of eff. The translation will ment 

then be slightly different perhaps, 25. hMfnrf^ 3rd sing, i fiit. 

*; and bear fruit at the rate of thnty, or ^g^ss. aXptT 

sixty, or a hundred-fold." >• **« 1 t_i 

21. k^yyoi, is a lami^-Xa/iTdf, ,. ^^,5?. The only paiable pecu- 
* a torch.' r r- » j^j^. ^^ Mark : occupying the place of 

luSSiov, the Lat 'modius.' A the parable of the leaven, Matt, xiiu 

Roiian measure of capacity, contain- 33; L^e an. 20, 21, Thev both 

ing about a peck. tAj, 3rd smg. i ^^^^^ ^^^J, ^^ ^^^^^'J^''''^ T? 1,^ 

aor. conj. V^rlOrifu. energy of its own by yurtoe of which it 

22. 8 Idv 1*4. ^di. used where we "^^ ^^''^'?f i^K^ '^ TT iT^^ ' 
should expect di, bemg quite in accord- f^ though left, as Ous parable show^ 
ance with the manner of the LXX. ^^"^ ^^! *? ^°?« t° '^^' French 
cf. Exod. XX. 24; xxi. 17. out of ^f?« ^^l^to the progress of the 
numberless other instances which might Tnl"^.^ (Jurch-the seed w^ sown 
be quoted. The word should be looked fi Christ's first coming, the ackle will 
on, we consider, as a lengthened Uter ^ P"^ ^°^ ** ^^ ^^""^ ^^^^ 
form of the classic di^. Its effect in ^ ^®^- ^^- ^4- sqq. 

relative clauses is, like that particle, 28. ctra irX^gni otrov. For this 

to give an indefinitely wide inclusive- the best editors unanimously read clra 

ness to the clause where it is intro- xXi^/wyj alros, then there is rail com in 

duced. The difference is much the the ear. 

ver. 29-40.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 2$ 

29 ''Otov hi irapab^ S Kapiros, evOitos iiroariXXei ro bpiiravov, 
OTi Trapi(rrqK€V S ^cpMTjbwJy.*' 

30 Ka2 cAcye, ** TCvi diioui<roiip.€v rrjv PaariKeCav rod 0€oS ; 
^i fj h iroCt^ TrapaPoXji itapapiXoap^v avrfiv ; m KOKKi^ (riviveoas, 

Ss, oTov oTrapfi ^"""i ^^ T^^f fUKpoTfpos Trdwo)!; rcoi; (nrepfidroov 

32 i(ni T&v iitX T)}s yrjs' xal orav airapfj, ivafiaCvei, Koi yCverai 
irivToav Toiv Kaxivoiv p^ldbnv^ xai Troiei xXcldov? /LteyoXot;;, oSare 
bivaa-Oai iiro ttiv aKibv avrov ra vcTeiva tov ovpavov xaroo*- 

33 Krjvovv** Kal Toiavrais ttapafioKais TroAXais AdXci avrots 

34 rhv koyov, Kadds rjbvvavTo iKoiicW x.(oph bi irapapoXjjs ovk 
ik6X€i avTois* Kor IbCav ii tois iiaBr^rals airm) iirikve 

35 Kal kiy€i avToTs iv iK^lvrf r^ vy^<t ^"^^^^^ y€Vop.iini^, 

36 '* AiiK6a>p.€V €h rb iripavJ* Kal i(l>ivT€s tov oy^kov, wopa- 
\ap.fi6vovarw avrov , its rjv, iv r<p irXoCij^' Kal HiXka hi TrKoiipia 

37 Ijv firr avTov. Kal yCverai A.aZA.a>/r ivifwv p.eydX.ri' rh bk 

38 KVfiaTa ivipaXKev els to irkdloVf caore avro ijbrj yep.iCeo'Bav 
Kal rpf avTbs iiii r^ itpiyLvri iitl to Trpo(rK€<pd\aiov KaOevbcdV 
Kal btcyeCpova-tv avrov, Kal \iyov(nv avr^, ** AiddorxaAe, ov 

39 p£K€i croi in, iiroAAv/Lieda ; " Kal hiv/^pB^h iirerCiiria-c r^ 
iivipjt^y xal cTttc r^ OaXda-tTrif " ^idira, Tr€<f>CiKaaroJ* Kal 

40 iKovaa-ev o iv^pLOSy koX iyivtro yoKrivri p,eydXq» Kal elirev 

29. iropoSf , subaudi iavrdp, expression. Matthew speaks of aeiafibs 

** gives itself up." Alford compares fji^as. 
I Fet ii 23. rd k^iiato, nom. iir4paXKep being 

diriMrHXXfs He (the Son of man) intrans. or make XatXa^ nom. and 

puts forth : or perhaps, the husband- /dJ^ara accus. after iiripaXKev. 
man. iScrr€ a^b, k. r. X. " so that ittuas 

30—32. Parable also recorded by nawfilling.'^ ^, ^ 

Matt xiii. 31, 32; Lukexiil 18, 19. ,38. ^po<rK«j»dXau)v, cushion for 

^ « J «• « .the head, cushion generally. Others 

31. inrofm, 3rdsmg. 2aor. conj. ^^^ ^ ' ^^^ ^^ ^j^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

rass. crre fiw. , ^ , . wood, cl. Bengel in loc. 

32. KXdSovs, drancAes of trees m 39, ,1^, ^ eoXdo-^rfl. Mark is 
general Kkrifia being restncted to t^e only Evangelist who records this 
branches of the vme. direct address to the elements. ircd»C- 

,^^ 35 — 41* Matt viiL 23 — 27 ; Luke i&cMro, 2 sing, pert imperat. Pass, ^t/xdw. 
viii. 22 — 2$, are parallel YclX-^ some from ydXa, on account 

36. &9 fy, without any prepara- of a supposed milky colour in calm 
tion for the journey. water : others more probably from 

37. XaSXai^. Luke uses the same y€\duf» 



41 avT0i9, " T^ h^iXol i(rr€ ovro) ; irSf ovk fxerc tsUftw ; '* Kal 
i<f>ofiT^Ori(ray <l>6pov fiiyav, kcH iK€yov vpos iXkrjKovs, *^TCs 
Spa oirof iariv, on Kod o ivefAos ical rj Odkaaara viraKovova-iv 

y. KolL ^\0ov €k rd vipav rfj^ 6aXd(ra7js, €h Trjv xdpcof 

2 t£v TabofnjvSv. Kal i^cXBovri avrf iK toS ttXoCov, eiSOicos 
iTtrjvrqcrcv adr^ iK r&v fiurifieCtov dv6p(OTros hf weifiaTi 

3 iKaOdpn^y ts ttiv KaToCKqa-tv €t\€P iv toIs lunjficCois' Koi ovt€ 

4 iXweo'iv (nSbels i^bvvaro airov bfja-ai, bih to avrov iroXXaKis 
iribcus Kol dXvaeai bcbiorOai, Koi bi€<nrdLcr6ai vit avrov rh^ 
aXvireis, Kal rds'iribas (TWT€TpC<l>0ai, Koi ovbcls avrov la\V€ 

5 bafJMorai' Kot bMiravros wktos koL "qyApas iv rois op€cri Kal 
hf roi9 iivrjixaaiv ^v Kpd^axv kolL KaraKoisrmf tavrov \C6ois. 

6 'Iddov ii rbv ^Irjaovv iiro fioKpddev, Ibpa^Ae Kal vpoar€Kvvrj<r€v 

7 avr^, Kal Kpd^as (Ixavfj /AcyaAry €tv€, *' TC ifiol Kal a-ol, 'It^o-ov^ 

41. ^pov holds a middle place de- is fully borne out by the ruins of it 

noting fear, sometimes in a gocxi, some- called Um JCeis. The town had a 

times in a bad sense. SecXf a always in a large district belonging to it called 

bad sense, cowardice. cUkdpeia (ed- G^aritis, and it was within the limits 

Xa/Seiy) always in a good sense, caution, of this that the events recorded took 

V. I — ^2a This miracle is narrated place. If we give credit to Origen's 

by Matt viiL 28 — 34; Luke viiL assertions respecting the existence of 

26 — ^39. S. Matthew's account is by Gerasa, we may suppose that the limits 

far the shortest ; S. Mark's the most of the two cities were not* very ac- 

minute. curately defined and this would fully 

I. ra8apt|V»v. The MSS. in all account for the variation in the reading, 

three accounts vary between this word, 2. &v6p«»iros. So S. Luke. S. 

Tcpaarjuiaif and TcpycarjuQu. The read- Matthew, however, mentions tivo men. 

ing TepyeoTfvutf like BrfdaPapdj John The discrepancy has been explained by 

i. 28. is due to a conjecture of Ongen. assuming either that one was a person 

The best editions read VepoffrivQv in of much higher rank than the other, 

this passage ; indeed some do so in all or that the sufferings of the one being 

three passages. The town Gerasa, by far the most grievous, rendered him 

whose very existence is doubtful, is much the fiercer of the twa From 

described by Origen as a city of Arabia, whatever cause one seems to have been 

and lay too far to the £. of the sea to the most prominent figure, 

have been the place in whose neigh- 4. o-uvrtrpC^Oai, perf. Pass, infin. 

bourhood the miracle was wrought, awrpipw. 

Gadara is probably the town meant ; 6. l8pa|M. 3rd sing. 2 aor. Tpix<^ 

it was on the river Hieromax, some is used as the present 

little distance from the Sea of Genne- 7. Notice how the man's natural 

sareth, at the SE. comer of it As the inclinations drew him to Jesus, while 

caoital city of Peraea it would naturally here the evil spirit speaks endeavouring 

large and important place. This to hinder the man's cure. 


ver. 8— la] S. MARITS GOSPEL. V 

vXk rov 0€oS r(yi vylrCarov ; opKlCoa (re rdv Qeov, fjL'q fi€ fiaaa^ 

8 vCajis'** i\ey€ yhp avr^ ""'EfcA^c, to irvevfJM to iKaOaprov, 

9 in Tov ivSpdirovJ* Kal ivrjpdra avrov, ^. T^ (roi ovofia ; 
Kal iircKpCdTj, \iya)», " Aeyeojv ovofid ixoi, ori voXXol ia-fievl 

10 Ka2 irapcicaXci aJrop voXXo, &a /a^ ootovs iwoareCKri l^ca 

11 T^s xoipas* *Hi; 6€ exci wpds ro oprj iyiKq xoCp<av /jLeyaXry 

12 poa-KOfUvri* kclL TrapcKikecrau avr6v min-e; ot baliwv€s, 

13 Xeyoin-esy 'Tl^i^/rov T^/uta? els rov; x^^P^^^s ^^ ^^^ avrovs 
€l(ri\6(i>fi€P,^* Kal hsirpv^^v avTols eUditiiS 6 'IrjaoSs. Kal 
i^tkBovra Th weipLara ra iKdOcLpra €l<rriXBop eh rovs 
XpCpov9. Kol (Spp,rj(r€V rj iyiXri Kard tov Kpri[Ufov €ls rriv 
6d\aa<rav» 1j(rav bi ds Siox^toi* jcal iirvCyovro iv Tjj Oa- 

14 Xacrcny. 01 de ^6<rK0VT€S rov^ \oCpovs i<l>vyov, Kal iinfyyeiAai; 
els rriv vokw Kal eh rovs iypovs. Kal iffjKBov Ibeip rl iari 

1$ rd y€yov6s* Koi Ipxovrai irpos tov 'It/ctoSv, Kal Oftapovai tov 
baipLOviCopLevov KoBrip^vov koL IpLaria-pLivov koI a'ai(l>povovvTa, 

16 TOV iaxriK6Ta tov keyeoiva' Kal i(t>opT^drj<rav' Kal biriyi^a-avTo 
a-JTols ol lb6vT€S, vtas iy€V€To r^ bai,p,oviCopAvij^g Kal ircpl 

17 t£v xotpo)!'. Kal ijp^avTO irapaKoKeiv avTov direKOelv dm 

18 T&v dpCoiV avrSv. Kal ifxpivTOs avTov eis rb vko'^v, vape" 

9. Xcycdiv, the Latin ligio. The thus found themselves doomed to that 

man had probably seen one. The very fate which they had hoped to 

question asking hmi his name may avoid by this means, 
have been intended to help on the cure 14. p^oicovrcs, implies merely 

by recalling him to his senses. But feeding : rotfuUvuf includes the whole 

the evil spirit repHes, using as before office of a shepherd — guarding and 

the man for a mouthpiece. tending the flock as well as feeding it. 

la f^n rfjs X^po^' ^^T^ we have There does not seem much ground 
a glimpse of the Jewish idea that evil for supposing as some have done, that 
spirits had certam districts assigned the owners were Jews. Of course if 
them bevond which they might not so they were punished for a breach of 
pass, without being sent back into their the Mosaic law ; but Gadara is called 
own part of Hades. S. Luke uses by Josephus a Grecian city, and the 
instead of the above the synonymous bulk of the population in that neigh- 
expression, els rifp Afivaaov, S. Matthew bourhood seems to have been Gentile, 
merely says : "^ tAifu cast us out. We may fairly conclude that the de- 
suffer us to go away into the herd of struction of this property was permitted 
swine." in order to serve as a trial of their 

13. The swine seem to have rushed faith, a test whether in their eyes the 

in terror down the cliffs on finding things of earth or heaven, were the 

themselves seized bv this new power ; most important, and under this test 

against the will of the evil spirits who they broke down. 

28 S. MARK'S GOSPEL. [Ol V. 

19 KoKu wthv 6 hQX\ijavwBii'it &a ^ fxcr' avrov. *0 Vk 'iT/aoS^ 
oifc i<lnJK€P cArbv, iXXh X^et avr^, ^'^Tiraye €li rbv oIk6v 
trov irpis tovs, avifs, koI iv6yy€iKov ovroiff Saa coi d KHpios 

20 hroCricTf, Koi rjkhia'i ore." Kal iinjXBe ical rjp^aTo Kt\pf6(ra-€iv 
iv r^ AcKaTrJXcc, 5(rci htohi^Gf air^ 6 'Iijo-ovs* Kal vdbrcs 

21 Kal diaTre/xio-avTOs ro6 'It^o-ov & r^ vXo^^ vciXir €U 
rh TtipaVy avvrj\6ri Sx^os irokvs tv avrov, Koi ^v vapa Trfv 

22 d6Xaa'a'<w. Kat tbov, ip\erai €& t£v ip)^iaway^a>Py dvofiaTi 

23 *Ia€i/K)99 Kci Ibt^v avTov, Trhrrei vpos rovs irobas avrov* koI 
vap€K6X€i aJrov iroXXh, kkyonv^ "'On to dvyirpiov p.ov 
iaxirois lx€C tva i\6oiv iiriO^s avrfj ras \€ipas» Siroas cro^Ofj, 

24 Kcu ffi<r€TaL^ Kal imjKSf fier avrov* Kot TJKdXo^Oci avr^ 
S^kos TTokhSf Kal (Twidkifiov avr6vn 

25 Kal yvvri T19 o^(ra iv pia^i alpLaros Irq bdbcKa, kclL vokka 

26 iraOovira iiro vokkoiv larpSp, Kal baTravri(ra(ra ra Trap' tavrrjs 

19, ilhrayf Kal MiyyeXoiv, th^ like privileges granted, and so the 

The man seems to have been of a name gradually spread as that of 

morose melancholy disposition, shmi- Galilee did. 

ning the society of his fellows. Thus 22 — ^ and 35 — ^43. Narrated by 

the best thing for him was to be drawn Matt. ix. 18, 19. and 23 — 26; Luke 

out of himself, and to be prevented viii 41, 42 and 49 — 56 ; and in all 

from brooding over his past life : which three the account is divided by the 

would be effected by a command of cure of the woman with an issue of 

this sort blood. 

2a AocttirdXci. S. Luke sajrs, 22. ct« t«8v iipXiawayA^mv* 

**^ tvent preaching through ail the Matthew only mentions, '*« certain 

city.^^ S. Matthew omits both the ruier,*^ Mark and Luke give both his 

injunction and its fulfilment. The name and office. 'Idcipos, Heb. ^air 

limits of the district called Decapolis (Judges x. 3.) i. e. *yaweer,*^ He will^ 

it is almost impossible to fix, nor can ox ^ may He enlighten. This man was the 

we speak with confidence as to the president of a body of Elders, who like 

cities of which it was composed. Some a cathedral chapter, managed the 

say that the district extended from business of the synagogue in adl towns 

Damascus on the N. to Philadelphia of any importance, 
on the s. ; and from ScythopoUs on 23. tay^rv^ lyci. So Luke : but 

the w. to Canatha on the £. thus Matthew says, ^* My daughter is even 

making it about 100 miles long by 60 now dead: " her state was such when 

broad. The name seems to have arisen he left her, that he knew not then 

originally from ten cities, rebuilt and whether he ought to think of her as 

presented with certain privileges when alive or. dead. 

Syria was conquered by Scaurus, tva 4X6c^V| k. r. X. For this ellip- 

Pompey's lieutenant (about 65. B. c). tical use of tya=**/ dig that," &c. of. 

Afterwards other cities may have had £ph. v. 33. 

ver. 28-^.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 29 

Tt&UTOy Kal iirfihf &(l>€\'q$€ia'a, iXka imXXov eh to x€ipov 

27 ikdovo'a, &Kov(ra(ra irepl rod 'If/o-oS, i\dov(ra iv r<p o^A^ 

28 SinarBeVy rjyjfaTO tov IfiarCov avrov* iKeye yap, *^^Oti k&v tUv 

29 lyLarCoiv airrov a^ca/xat, a-o^drjcroiJLaL* Kal evOioas i^pda^rj rj 
irqyfi tov af/xaroff avrrjsg koI iyvto r<p adfiaTi 8ti larou iiro 

30 TJ}s fuioTtyo;* Ka2 evOioDS 6 'IrycroSs ^Triyvovy & lavT<p t})v 
^^ avroS dvx/ofAu; i^cXdovirav, ^lorpa^eU ^v r<p ^X^¥> ^Aeyc^ 

31 '' Tf? /lov ^aro rcSi; l/LtanW;" Kal iKeyov ovt^ ol iMajdrjral 
avToS, "Bkiireis tov S^^ov trvvSklfiovri. tre, Kal Xeyets, TCs 

32 ixov iplfaTo ;** Kal irept^pkiTreTo Iheiu ttiv tovto voi'qa'aa'av* 

33 'H 5^ yvvfj i^ofir)6€iaa Koi TpifJLova-a, clbvLa o yiyov€v ^ir' avr^, 
^A^€ KoL Trpoa-iir€cr€V avT<^, koI etttev avT^ itaxrav Tijv akq^ 

34 OcLav* 'O Si ehrev avTrj, " GvyaTcp, rj vCaris trov <ri(r<i>Ki crc' 

35 {hraye eJs elprjvriv, Kal laOi vyiryy diro ttjs /mdoriyJs o-ov." "En 
avrov kakovvTOS, ipxoirrai iiro rod ipxiavvaydyov, A^orres, 

""On 17 Bvyirrip (tov iiTriSave' tC Itl o-KvAAeiy tov hbda-KoXov; " 

36 *0 hi ^Irja-ovs eSOitos aKOvaas tov koyov kaXovjievov kiyci r<p 

37 &pxL<Tvvay<ay(j^, *' M^ <f>o^oVy [lovov Trforcve." Kai ovk &<pfJK€V 
ovbiva avT(^ (rwaKokov6rj<rai, el [irj HeTpov Kal ^UkohPov Kal 

38 ^loidwrjv Tdv &b€k<l)6v 'la/cco/Sor;. Kai ipxerai, els tov oXkov 
TOV ipxiovvay^yoVf xal 6e<iipel Oopvpov, KkalovTas Kal &AaAa- 

39 C^VTas irokkd. Kal ela-ekSo^v Aeyei aurois, " Ti Bopo^eXaBe 

40 xal Kkalerei to iraibCov oJk direOavev, dkkd fcadcvdei." Kal 
KaTeyikoov at/roS. *0 bi iKl^akoiV iiravTaSy irapaXaiipdvei 

25 — ^34. In Matt ix. 20 — 22 ; intended for the woman's benefit, to 

Luke viiL 43 — ^48. S. Matthew's draw from her a confession of her need, 

account is by far the briefest. Hence such a question implies no 

27. IfjidTiov, frx)m t/jM=ctfia : often ignorance on our Lord's part, 
used for clothes in general ; in its 33. clSvto, part. perf. : the perf. 

restricted sense refers to the upper indie, is otSa used as present : vide sub. 

garment as distinguished from xcri^i^, etdta, 
the inner vest. 34. XtrBi, 2nd pers. sing, imperat. 

29. tarat, perf. not pres. which pres. of elfd. 

would be larcu, fyvM. 3rd sing. 2 aor. 35. oicvXXcit, lit to strip ox flay ^ 

yiyviAXTKUf, hence metaph. to trouble, 

30. Trench points out that we 36. dKo^Kros. For this several 
must not suppose that healing power good MSS. read irapaKo^as, i,q. ''not 
could have gone out from Christ un- paying attention to." 

wittingly or against his will. The 39. dir^Oavcv. 3 sing. 2 aor. 

question: ^* Who tottched meV is &vodirfyrK(a. 

30 & MARirS GOSPEL. [C3i. VL 

liv varipa rov irat^Cov Kai Trfv lAriripa Kal tovs /act' airov, 

41 Kal eltnropeierai oirov fjv to vat^lov dvaMCfievov. Koi Kparrj^ 
tras TTJs x^^P^^ ^ vaiZCov, Xeycf avi^, ^'TakiOcL, fcoS/jii*" 
o ian fi€d€pfiriV€v6ii€Vov, *' To Kopdaiov, (a-ol kiyoa,) lycipai." 

42 Kal €v6i(os dviarrj to Kopdaiov koL vepieircErc^ fjv yap iT£v 

43 dcidcica* icai i^i(m\a'av CKorao-ci fitydXif, Kal dicorcfXaro 
avroi? 'n'oXXa^ iva firfbch yv^ toSto*^ mX eZirc do^voi aJr^ 

YI. Kal i^kO^v iK€W€V, Kal IjkBev els Trjv vaTpCba aJroS * 

2 fcal aKoKovOoviru; avr<p ol fAO^rol avrov. Kal yevofiivov 
a-aPpdroVf rip^aTo iv 177 owaymy^ didao-KCiv* Kal voAXol 
aKOVoiH'Cff €^€Tr\rj(r(rovTO, XiyovTes, ** ITodev Tovry raSra ; 
fcal tCs 37 (ro(^£a ^ bo$€i(ra avTi^, 8n ical dvx^a/Aci? TOiavrat 

3 5(a r(3v x^'P^^ ovtov yCvovrai; ovx oJ!ro9 ^oriv o reicrcop; 
d Vi09 Map(a9| dh€k(f)bs de 'laiccajSov ical 'loxr^ koI *Ioi;5a ical 
2f/ia>x;o9; Kal ovk elaiv al efdcA^al at;rov ibe vpos ^juias;" 

4 Kal ia-KavbaXlCovro iv avV<p. '^fiXeye de avTois 6 ^Irjcrovs, 
"''On ovx loTt vpo<l>rjrqs trifios, el [xrj iv rp varp£5i avrov, 

5 fcal ^i' TOis avyyeviai koL iv r^ oUCfj^ avrov." Kal ovk. 'IjbvvaTo 
iK€l ovbeiAlav bvvaynv Troi^croi, tl piij okCyois ipptiaroks iviBels 

41. ToXiOd Koii|u. The very rxaif ^* Be ye prudent as serpents^ and 

Aramaic words probably that our Lord harmless as doves J*^ 

uttered, preserved by Peter. Tlithaw 3. h t{kt«»v. Some MSS. read 

is the Aramaic ioT a young girl, JCumi 6 rov riicropos, to avoid the implication 

the imperat. Kal 01 JCum^ * to arise."* that Jesus actually worked at Joseph's 

Luke has *H Tout iyelpov : Matthew, trade. Justin Martyr (Dialogue with 

" He went in and took her by the hand, Trjrpho, c. 88. ) says : " these works of 

and the maid arose, ^ the carpenter He wrought while among 

rb KopdcTiov. The article with the men — ^ploughs and yokes." 

nominative in place of the vocative, lcrKav8o^C(ovTO. o-KdydaXoir, the 

a usage which is very common in N.T. later form of aKavddiXrfOpov, is the stick 

c£ John xix. 3, and (probably) parallels : in a trap on which the bait is placed, 

also Gal. iv. 6 ; £ph. v. 14. which when touched springs up and 

43. SicvTcCXaTo. 3 sing. I aor. causes the trap to shut. 

Mid. diouTTiKKw. yv^ 3 sing. 2 aor. 4. irpo^i^nis, strictly, one who 

conj. yiyvttxTKbf, speaks for, or, in behalf of another : 

Vl I — 6. Matt xiii. 54 — 58, is in classical Greek not so much a fore- 
parallel, teller, fidvris is the word for that, as 

2. vo^Ca, wisdom — ^pSmfonSf an expounder, 
common sense, prudence. Hence, the 5. iirvOcCs, part 2 aor. Act. Je- 
well-known text (Matt X. 16.) should rlSTjfu, 

ver. e-14.] S, MARK'S GOSPEL. 3' 

6 ra^ X^^P^^f i$€pdv€U(r€» Kal idavfmCc bia rrjv dvurrCav caiTSv 
Kot 7r€pirjy€ rds Kco/xas icvicA^ bibda-Koav. 

7 Kal vpoo-KoXetrai roits ScSdcKa, Koi rjp^aro airovs ivoa-" 
riXkcw bio bUo. Kal ibCbov airoi^ i^ovcrCoof r&v irvcufjArc^v 

8 T&v iKaSifyroiv, Kal iraprlyyeikev airols, &a firibiv alpwaiv 
€ls SbbVf el fjiij fidpbov fiSvov fifi w/jpav, fiii tprov^ firi els r^v 

9 Cdvriv xaXxdv* &XX' inobcbeyiivovs a-avbikui' xal ''/x^ 

10 hbvfrqtrSe bio xircivas.*' Kal iKeyev avrols, ''"Oirow iap 
€laiK67]T€ els oUCav, inel iJiivere (ons iv i^ikOTjre iKeWev. 

11 Kal Sa-oi &v fiif bi^oivrai ifjMS, firibk iKoiaraxru; iiSMV, iKiro^ 
pevojJLevoi iKcWev^ iKTivi^are t6v xouv t6v vnoKiroa r&v vob&v 
vfJMV, eh fjLapriSpiov avrois. ^Afiijv A^a> ip,iv, iveKtSrepov 
lorai SodJ/tois fj Tofulppois iv fniipi^ Kpl<Te<os$ fj if iroKei 

12 iKednf.** Kal i^ekSovres iKqpvo'a'ov &a /Lieravoi/a-axri* xal 

13 bain6vui itoKKh i^e^aXXov, kcX 7J\ei,(l>ov ikaCt^ ttoAAov^ ippcScr- 
Tovs xal iSepiirevov* 

14 Kal riKovaev 6 paa-ikehs *llp^bris, {(l>avepbv yhp iyiveTo 

7 — 13. Mission of the twelve, a Samaritan woman. His first wife 

Matt. X. I — 15 ; Luke ix. i — 5. was the daughter of Aretas, king of 

7. Siio 8&« Hebraism very like Arabia Petraea : but on a visit to his 

our tzoo and two, half-brother Philip (not the tetrarch of 

9. Here the construction changes Ituraea, Luke iii. I.), he prevailed on 

from irafrffYf€ik€v tya, with subj. to : Herodias, Philip's wife to form an 

iraprqy, eZimt i^rodede/A^vr. adulterous or rather incestuous con- 

1 1. &|&V||V \kfui ^i&Cv Txj ir^Xifi nexion with him, disgusting his subjects 

IkcCvq. Almost all best MSS. and all and bringing on a war with Aretas, 
best editions concur in omitting this which, however, did not issue in de- 
clause, which has probably been inter- dsive consequences till about seven 
polated from Matt. x. 15. to make the years afterwards, A. D. 36. A. u. c 789, 
two passages harmonize. when his army. was totally destroyed 

13. f^fi^ov is used of common by Aretas : this disgrace was looked 
anointing for ordinary purposes. Xf^^t 0^ ^Y ^^ Jews as a mark of the divine 
of sacred anointing. displeasure. His paramour Herodias 

UkaJUf, oU, wluie fiiifiop is oitUmmt, continued faithful to him in his ad- 

14 — ^29, Related by Matt xiv. versity : early in Caligula's reign, A. D, 

I — 12 : Luke iii. 19. mentions 38 — 39, they went together to Rome 

John's imprisonment : Luke ix. 7 — 9. in order to complain of Agrippa, 

alludes to John's death but does not Antipas' nephew — the ^* Herod the 

describe it ; mentioning this wish of king^^ of Acts xiL i : Caligula had 

Herod to see Jesus. been won over by the emissaries of 

14. 'HpttSi|t. This was Herod Agrippa, and Antipas was banished ta 
Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and Persea, Lugdunum (Lyons) : Herodias^ went 
son of Herod the Great, and Malthace wim him willingly, and he died in 

32 S. MARjrS GOSPEL. [Ch. VL 

rh Svofia avrov,) Kci l\€y€v, "''Ort 'Ia)(bi^9 6 fiairrCCiov iK 
V€Kp&v rjyipOri, koX bih tovto ivepyovaw al bvviii€ts iv avrf .'' 

15 ''AXXoft iXeyov, "''On 'HAios iorfr-" aXXot Sc lAeyoi^, ""On 

16 Trpo<l>rJTris iarlv, (is ch T<iiv 7rpo(l>riToiv** ^AKovaas bi 6 ^Hpdbris 
ehrev, '^''Ori iv iyi» &V€K€(t>iXia'a ^loacanniv, oirds i(rrtv' avrbs 

17 liyipSri iK V€Kp&v** Avrbs yap 6 ^Hpdbris iiroareCkas iKp6.Tqcre 
rov ^IdiiwriVy mX ibr\cr€V avrhv hf r^ (f/vkaK^, biti *Hpa)5idda 
rrjv ywaiKa ^iXtmrov rov i,b€k(l>ov avrov, Sn ovttjv iyiiiritrcvm 

18 "EAeyc yap d *la>iwrj^ r^ ^Hpiibri, " "On ovk If corf troi ix,€iv 

19 r^i; yvpoUa rov ideX^oS (rovJ^ *H bi *Hpo>dia9 iveix^v avT<^« 

20 xal ijOcKev aiirbv iLiroKTcwai* xal ovk rjbr6paT0* 'O yap 
^Hpdbris i^^€iro rov *l<o6wrjv, cidcl^s avrov ivbpa bUaiov koI 
Syiov, iccu avverripei avrov* koI iKOvaas avrov, voXXh i'ffoCei, 

21 Kot fibioDs avrov rJK0V€. Kal yevofihnis fjiiipas fVKaCpov, 5r€ 
*Hp<ibris rols yeveo'Cois avrov beiirvov ivoUi roU p,ryi<rraxnv 

22 avrov KoL rols xiKtAp)^is koL rois vpdrois rijs FoXiXa^a^^ Koi 
€la€k$o{iairjs rrjs Ovyarpos avrrjs rrjs *llp(obi6jbos, Kot opxria-a- 

exile. Another occasion on which this ^iXCinrov. Son of Herod the 

Herod comes before us in the Gospel Great and Mariamne II. Hence it 

narrative, is the conversation with his follows that Philip married his niece, 

servants as to the identity of Christ and in marrying Herodias. This Philip 

John the Baptist, cf. Matt xiv. i ; was older than the tetrarch of Itursea 

Luke ix. 7—9 : this is borne out by (Luke iii. i) : he was originally in- 

Luke viii. 3 ; Acts xiii. i, whence we tended to ts^LC Antipater's place, and 

learn that Joanna the wife of Chuza have the chief share of Herod's pos- 

the steward, besides Manaen the foster sessions : but in consequence of sus- 

brother of this prince, were among the pected treachery on the part of his 

early converts to Christianity. This is mother, his name was erased from his 

the Herod who wished to kill cur feither's will, and he lived as a private 

Lord (Luke xiii. 31.) : and it is he to person. To explsdn the complicated 

whom our Lord was sent by Pilate relations of the Herodian&mily, a table 

before the Crucifixion, when Pilate will be given in the Appendix, con- 

and Herod were reconciled. taining ue names of those members 

17* ^ TQ ^XoKn. Machaerus only who are mentioned in N. T. 
a hill fort in ue s. of Peraea, forming 19. Ivctxcv, sub. x^^o^t lit* *' ^^ 

the key to the possession of that zui/Ain,** and so ^^cA^risAeJ" wrath 

country, and therefore, very important against him. 

for Antipas at this juncture when 20. (ruveHjpci, some * preserved:* 

Aretas on the other side of his frontier others, ' observed strictly,* 
was making war upon him. 22. rfjs Ovy. aM)t rfjs 'Hp. Does 

'Hp«»8ta8o, (feminine form of a^s belong to ^V7arp6r or *H/»w8((idor, 

*H/)(6di7;). Grandaughter of Herod the i, & is it "/Aa/ very daughter of 

Great and Mariamne I., daughter of Herodias,** or *Uke daughter of that 

Aristobulus^ and sister of Agrippa I. very Herodias?** Some MSS. to avoid 

ver. 23—34.] .S: MARK'S GOSPEL. 33 

lUvrjSf Koi ipeadirrjs rf *llp6bri koL toIs ovvavaKeifjAvoLs, eTn-ev 
6 pacrOicvs T<p Kopaa-Ci^, ^* Alrqa-ov /x€ o iaif Oikrjs, Koi dcio-o) 

23 <rof'" Kal &yLO(r€V avTjJ, ''"'On 8 ^ai; yL€ alTrjcrjis, hfjicr<o aol, Icos 

24 fiixC(rovs rrjs fiaaik^Cas jiov" 'H 6i i^ekdova-a etirc rp /LtT/rpl 
a^T^y, '* T^ ain/o-o/Liai ; " 'H hi ctire, '* T^v x€<})aX^i^ 'Icoclvi^ot; 

25 Tov Ba-TTTtoToC.'* Kol eJcrcX^oCcra evOions fiera (rnovbfjs irpbs 
Tov Paa-ikia, jinycraro, Xiyovcra, *' ©^Ao) tra [loi b^s ii avriji 
iirl tfCvoki T7IV K€<l>akfiv 'loxirz^ov rod BaimoTod.** Kal 

26 TTepCXviros y€v6yL€Vo^ 6 /SacnXevs, hia rovs SpKOVS Kal rovs 

27 (TvvavaKeipAvovs ovk riOikrja-ev avrfiv adcr^o-at. Kai ^Bicas 
iLTTOiTTcCkas 6 pacrikevs <nr€KOvkiTO}pa iviraiev iv^xOrjvai t^v 

28 xe^oA^i' avrov. *0 hi iLTT€kO<ov air€K€<f>A\Lar€V airov iv t^ 
(l>vkaKfj^ Kal TJveyK€ ttjv K€<l>akiiv avrov im vCvaKt, Kal ibonKcv 
avTTiv T<p KOpaaCia* koI to Kopda-Lov Idcoxev avrriv rfj firjTpl 

29 avTrjs. Kal &K(y6(ravT€S ol fiaOriTal avrov IjkOov, Kal fipav rb 
Tn&fia avTOV, Kal iOrjKav avro iv t£ iMVrjfXfCfd* 

30 Koi avviyovTai ol iTrStrrokoi irpbs tov 'ItycroCv, Kal ATTiyy- 

31 y€ikav avrS irivTa, Kal Sa-a iiroCriirav Kal Saa ibCba^av. Kal 
ctTTci; avrots, '* AcBre iiieis airrol kot* Iblav els iprjiiov rJiroy, 
xal avaTraHeaOe dkCyov** ^Ho-ai; yap ol ip\6ii€Voi Kal ol 

32 vTriyovT€s irokkol, Kal ovbi if>ayelv rjifKaCpovv. Kal iinjkOov 

33 €ls ipi]px)v TOTTov T^ TtkoCi^ KaT IbCav. Koi etbov avTohs 
iviyoirras ol 6\koi, Kal iiriyvoia-av avTov irokkoC* xal ircCg 
ivb iraar&v t&v irokeoiv avvibpapjov iK€i, Kal irpofjkdov oJtovs, 

the difficulty read adrov, his (Herod's) 27. <nrcKovXdTfi»pa. S. Mark 

daughter J that is Herodiai, Her name alone mentions the kind of officer 

was Salome : she married Philip, employed ; an adjutant or special 

tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis, messenger ; the word ' is probably, 

and he having died childless, Aristo- * speculator^* in Greek letters, lit a 

bulus son of Herod king of Chalcis. looker-out, from speculor, specio, 

23. JfUMrcv. I aor. 3rd sing, spicio. Others connect it with spicu- 

Bfintfii, lum, *a spear y less probable. 

alHjcrQS, to ask as a favour, making IvcyO^^^^ ' ^^^* Pass, infin. 0^/xtf. 

the request as an inferior to a superior : 33. irf|| j, by landy not necessarily 

ipcifTay, to ask as an equal of an equal: ^ on foot,'* 

hencealr^wisnever used of any request 34 — ^44* The only miracle nar:- 

made by Christ to His Father. rated by all four Evangelists. Matt. 

25. 8<j>s. 2nd sing. 2 aor. conj. xiv. 15 — 21 ; Luke ix. 12 — 17 ; John 

hlSufu, vi. 5 — 14 : it was wrought {cL Luke 


34 ^- MARK'S GOSPEL, [Ch. VI. 

34 ical ovvi{KQov vphs avrov, Kal i^ckSoiv etbev 6 *lrj(rovs irokifv 
S^kov, Kot iairkayxyMri iir* avTols, on fjirav <is Trpofiara /x^ 

35 ^X^'^^ TtoiyAva' koL rjp^aTo hibiaKCiv avrovs iroXXi* Kal 
^brj &pas iroXXfjs yevopAvris, irpoa-ckSovTiS avT<^ ol fiadriTal 
avToS kiyova-w, *'*'Oti ipTjjjLos itrrw 6 tcJttos, koL 1781/ (wpa 

36 iroXXrf' i,TT6\v(rov avrohs, tva iirekOSvrcs els rohs kvkA^ 
iypoifs Kal xci/xaVy iyopaaaxriv iavroh iprovs* ri yap <l>iy<i)(rLV 

37 ovK (xpvcrip** 'O hi iiroKpiBcls ttisev avTois, " A6t€ ovtoIs 
i^eCs <l>ay€iv.^* Kal kiyovinv avT(^, " 'Air^kdovTcs iyopia-iofiev 

38 biaKoa-Coav brjVapCfov tprovs, fcal b&fuv a^rois <l>ay€U/ ; " *0 bi 
kiyci avToli, *' Il6aovs tprovs cxere ; iirayere xal iScrc." 

39 Kal yv6vT€S kiyovcri, " n6;T€, xal bvo l\Mas.*^ Kal iirira^cv 
avToh ivaxkLvai Ttavras avinrStria avfivoaia iirl r^ X^^P^ 

40 X^P^¥* ^^ iviireaov irpao'ial vpaaiai, iva kKarov koX ivh 

41 it^vrfiKovra. Kal kafiiiv rods iriwe iprovs ical tovs b^o IxOvas, 
ivapkiyfras els rhv ovpavbv, €vk6yri(r€' koI KariKkaa-c tovs 
iprovSf Kal ibCbov vols [laOriTais avrov, tva irapaO&a-w avTols' 

42 Kal Toifs bvo Ixdvas iiiipiae iraa-r Kal i<t>ayov iravres, Kal 

43 ^xpprdard'qa'av' Kal fjpav Kka(rfidT<jiiv bdbcKa KO(f>lvovs irkrjpeis, 

44 fcal iirh t&v lyfivtuv* Kal ^crai; ol ^ayovres T(ybs tprovs da-el 

45 irevraKtaxO^f'Ot ivbpcs. Kal evOioDs TjvdyKacre tovs fiadrjrhs 
avTOv ipL^TJvai els to irkolov, Kal vpodyeiv els rb vepav irpbs 

ix. 10; John vi. i.) in the neighbour- others suggest Tpdaop, a leek, hence 

hood of Bethsaida on the £. shore of strictly, a bed ofledis, 
the lake. This place, only mentioned ^^ ko<^Cvovs. The word used 

besides in Mark viii. 22, must not be by all four Evangelists to denote the 

confused with the Bethsaida of ver. 4|. kind of basket used on this occasion. 

37. &ir^e<JKT€«d70od<r»|tcv,K.T.X. Not so large as a cnrvpfj, the word 

Some doubt about the punctuation, used in the account of feeding the four 

The most usual and best way is, as in thousand with seven loaves, for in a 

the text, to make the whole sentence <riru/ofs S. Paul was let down from the 

one question. Others put a mark of ^aU of Damascus (cf. Acts ix. 25.) 
interrogation after d^jrouf, as well as ^ AvdyKairc, because the dis- 

aiter 0a7etv, x^m^X^o distmct ques- ^^^^ y;^^^ /j^^ multitude wished to 

tions : some edit without any question ^^ jjim a king by force, cf. John 

vL I S. 
39. (rviJiir6<ria crvuir^crta, a He- , ' ^ ./..«/ 

braism, " in many companies:' 4|iP<ivai. 2 aor. mfin. ^m^oTw. 

4a irpooxol irpooraC, also a BT|0<rai8dv, bayth tsaydaw, " house 

Hebnusm, " in many groups,'' Some offish," a small town on the w. of the 

derive irpaaricU from T^pas, because Lake of Gennesareth, near to and 

beds are usually at the edge of a garden : perhaps a suburb of Capernaum. 

ver. 47—2.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL, 35 

46 ^r\6a'dLhcLP^ ions avro$ iL'n6k'6(Tri rbv oxkov. Kal &TroTa^diJL€Vos 

47 avToiif iTnjKSfv (Is to opos Trpoa-ev^aaOai* Kal oyffCas y^vo- 
liivrjs, liv TO irko'iov iv fiea-t^ ttjs doAocrcrr/s, Kal avTos fwvos 

48 iirl Trjs yfjs* Kou ctbev avToifs paa-aviCofJi'^vovs iv r^ i\avv€iv* 
jfV yap 6 SvcfMos ivavTCos avTois' Kal irepl rerdprrjv <pvkaKrjv 
rfjs iWKTos Ipx^TOi TTpos OVTOVS, TTcpiTTaTCuV iirl Trjs dakda-tnis' 

49 Kal ijOeXc irapcXOfip avrovs. 01 bi IbovTcs avTbv TrepnraroCwa 
iirl TTJs 0aXda'(nrjs, Ibo^av <l>dvTacrfia elvai, Kal avtKpa^av* 

50 TtdvT^s yap avTov €&ov, koL irapdxdria-av. Kal evOcois i\d\'q(r€ 
IJL€T avTcoVf Kol Xcy€4 avToTs, "©apcreirc' iyii ci/ii, fifj 

51 ^o^e((r^€." Kal ivipri vpos avTovs €li to ttXomv, Kal 
iKoiratrev 6 ivejios' Kal kCav €k TrcpLtraov iv iarrroh i^CaravTo, 

52 Kal iSavfiaCov. Ov yap avvfJKOif iirl rot; iprois' rjv ybp 17 

53 KapbCa avT&v Tt^TSoapoip.kvr]. Kal biaTt€pdfravT€s ifKOov iirl ttjv 

54 yrjv Tcwrjaapikr, Kal Trpoa-oipfiCarOria'av. Kal i^^XOovToav a-JT^v 

55 CK Tov irXoloVf €vdi(os iinyvovTcs avTov, 7r€pibpafjL6vT€S Skriv 
rfjv TtepCxiapov iKeCvriv, Tjp^airro iirl toIs KpafifidTois Tohs KaKois 

56 i\ovTas 'jr€pL(l>€p€tv, Sttov rJKovov oti c/cet eorc. Kal oirov av 
€l(r€Trope6€To ch K<ifias fi iroXds ff iypovs, iv ra'Cs dyopah 
iTlOovv Tovs i(r0€VovvTas, /cal irapCKdXovv ovtov, tva k&v tov 
Kpaairibov tov IfiaTCov avTov 2>/ra)vrai* ical ocrot iv rjirroirro 
oJtov iadCovTO, 

VII. KAI avvdyovTai irpos avTbv oi ^apKraloi, Kai tlvcs t&v 

2 ypafifiaTicav, iXBovTcs dvo ^IcpoaoXviioiv' Kal ibovTcs Tivhs 

Ti^v iiaBriT&v avTov Koivais X^P^^» rovr' loriy dvCirrois, 

47 — 52. Also in Matt xiv. 22 — 33 ; in the object in question, and mani- 

John vi. 16 — 21. S. Luke says nothing fested by it, which remove all doubt about 

about this walking on the sea. its being of such or such a character. 

48. iXaiivciV, sc rV >^ai^v> almost 51. \Cav ifCcrravTO. Mark 

intrans. cfl iXai^tv (r6f fmrof'), to alone records this effect on their minds: 

drive. . Matthew mentions, ** tAey that were in 

ijdcXc vopcXOctv, and would have the ship : " passengers or other sailors, 

actually done so had not they invoked di4pT|. 3rd sing. 2 aor. dyajSoiyw. 

His aid. His conduct towards the 52. oi ydp cruv. Iirl rots Aprott, 

disciples at Emmaus is similar. "Jbr they understood not in the case of 

49. l8o(avy they thought, Boxita theUaves.*^ 

expresses the subjective opinion formed 53 — 56, correspond almost word 

in the mind of the beholder which may, for word with Matt. xiv. 34 — 36. 
or may not (as here) be correct : 0a£- VII. i — 23. This discourse is re- 

vofJMi denotes certain qualities inherent lated by Matt xv. I — 2a 

36 S. MARirs GOSPEL, [Ch. VII. 

3 i<r0CovTas iprovs, ifiiiAylrcano' (ol yap ^apia-atoi Kot vipT€S 
01 *lovbaioi, ioof jJLri irvyii^ vi^cDvrai ras x^^P^^f ^'^ iaOCovai, 

4 KpaTovvres tyiv irapabocrtv t£v vpcarpvTipiav' kqI airo iyopas, 
iav pri fiamCaiavTCUy ovk iar6lov<n' koX iXXa iroXXi iarw & 
irapikaPov Kpareiv, jSaTrrur/Liow irorripUav kclI ^€(tt£v koX 

5 yakKimv kolL KKuf&v') ivevra ivepoiTcia-iv avrhv ol 4>api(ratbi 
kclL ol ypapjjLaT€iS, '' AiarC ol p^driTaC aov ov vepivarovo-i Kara 
TTiv 7rap6jbo(riv r&v TTp^a-fivTipoiv, &XXa ivCirrois x^P^^>^ i(r6Cov<n 

6 t6v i/wor;" *0 5^ avoKpiOcU ehev avrols, ""Ort KaK£s 
irpo€<fyqT€va'€V ^Haatas ircpl vpjuiv t(^v visoKpix&Vy C09 yiypairrai, 
'OiJtos 6 Xoos Tols x^^^^^^ M^ Tt/^^, V ^^ KapbCa avT£v 

7 TToppca &7rix€i air* ifiov. Mirriv 5i aipovraC [le, bibitr- 

8 KovT€S bibaa-KaXlaSf ivrikiiara ivOpdiriav,^ ^A(ffivT€S 
yap TTIV ivToXfjV tov &€ov, KpaT€iT€ Tfjv Trap6jboa'iv rcSv hvOpi- 
V(ov, Paimaiwis ^€(ttS»v kclL TroTrjpla>v, xal &XAa irapofwia 

9 TOiavTa iroXXh Troteirc." Kal lAcycv avro?;^ '^ KaXcSs i0eT€iT€ 
Tfjv hrroKfiv tov 0€Ov, tva rrjv irapihoaw vpoiv TqprjarjTC. 

lo Maxnjs yap e7ire^ ^Tlpka rhv varipa aov Kal rfjv p,rjTipa 

3. 'lovSatoi, the name which the whole of it — to bathe. tXt^vclv 

arose at the time of the Captivity ; by means to wash inanimate things, e. g, 

which the nation was known to hea- garments. 

thens. 'B/3/)<uof, one who spoke the , 4. {ccrrAv, a corruption of *' sex- 

Hebrew language as opposed to the /^jn«j;' probably *«w«w«r^* is the best 

Hellenists. 'IffparjXlTTjSf the honour- translation. 

able title by which th^ spoke of them- g^y, ^^ ^ Xab« IvrdXuara 

selves, cf. Acts xxl 28. dvepAirwv, quoted ahnost literally from 

irv^u^ lit. m^s//^/j// but in lxX of Isi. xxix. 13, the Hebrew is 

this collocation there; has been much rather different 

dispute as to the way in which the g wpo«^^T«Kr„ describes the 

meanmg IS to be "nved at. the predictions^Pprophets inspired by 

meaning itself bemg pre^ dear : (i) ^ . ^^^ \^ of heathei 

some say, * up to the elbow^ or * up q^q[^ r— r' , 

to the wrist^ (2) * having clenched the ^ ' \ > ^ 

Aj»/; ' it seems impossible to get the ^ ». pairruriAoi^j {f«rr«v. iroiitTi. 

first of these meanings out of the Some editore. on rathershght authonty, 

simple word inrnk% : (3) mrim^vvKv^ ^^ disposed to consider these words 

= vvKvQt, i. e. 'often,' so Vulg. 'crdfro; spunous. 

E. V. «^': (4) as Syriac versions, 9- KoXfis, 'findy,' (of course in 

'carefully,' 'diligently;' and this is an ironical sense). 

probably the sense intended. la tC|u&, k. t. X. quoted literally 

vCilwynu, wash. This is the word from LXX. of Exodus xx. 12 : & koko- 

meaning to wash a portion of the body, X07WV, k. r. X. also litendly from LXX. 

as distinguished from Xoi^ti^, to wash Exod. xxi. 16. 

ver. 11—23.] .S". MARK'S GOSPEL. 37 

11 (Tov* #cai« '6 KaKo\oy&v iraripa fj iiffripa davirtf^ 
reX€vr<ira)'' vfM€is bi X^cre, 'Eov elirri SvOpcoTros T<p worpl 

12 ^ TJ7 firjTpl, KopBav, {S iari, Acopoy,) & iav i^ ifiov (0(p€X.riOfjs' 
Kol cvKiri i,<l>Cer€ avrov ovbhf iroirjarai r^ irarpl aJrov fi tt} 

13 iitirpl avTOVf &KvpovvT€S rbv koyov rot) ©cov ty} irapaboirei 
vpj&v fi TFopcbdKaTe* kqI vapoiAoia roiaika iroWb, Troictre." 

14 Kol irpocTKoXecrifievos Ttivra top S^^^^f Ikcyev avT0i9, 

15 "*AKOV€Ti flOV TraVT€S9 Koi (TUl/fcrC. Ovbiv icrnv i^<i)0€V 

Tov ivOpdvov €l(nrop€v6fA€Vov els avrbv, o biipaTai avrov 
Koiv£(rai' dXAa rh iKiropevofieva &v avrov, iKclvi itrri ret 

16 Koivovvra rov IMpiAVov. EIn; Ix^^ <iS^a dxovciy, &icov^ci>." 

17 Kai 5r€ tlariXBeif ds oIkov diro rov o\kov, iTnjpdroiv avrbv 

18 ol jxadf/rol ai^Toi) ve/>i r^9 trapafioXris, Kal Xiyet a'JroTSf 
'* Oi^Tw icai ifieis iaHverot tare ; ov yoeire on irai; to 
i(a>6€V €laifop€v6pL€Vov €h rov ivOpontov ov hCvarai, 

19 avrov fcowcoo-ai; Sri ov«c tltntopcierai avrov eZs r^v KapbCav, 
oAX' e!9 ri}!; icotXfax/* Koi €ls rov &<p€bp£va iKiropeierai., 

20 KoBapiCov vavra ra ppdiiara" ''EAcyc 5^, "''Ort to ^k tov 

21 ivOpdirov iKiropevofievov, iKclvo kowoi rdv ivBpoiirov. "Eaio- 
Oev yap iK rijs KapbCas rcov ivOpdvaiV ol biaXoyicrfwl ol kokoI 

22 iKvopetjovraif fiot)(€Lai, Ttopvfiai, <f)6voi, xXoirai, irXeovc^Cai, 
Trovqplat, boXos, ia-iXy^ia^ otpOaXpLOS Trovrjpbsg fiXa(r<l>r}p.[a, 

23 {nt€pfr]<l>avla, iL<f^po<rivri. Tlivra ravra rh Ttovi\pa la-oDdcv 

II. KopP&v, ^ kawrhawn^ from all meats i"*"^ must be miderstood to 

Heb. kayrayby *to bring near"* (to God) mean, leaving all the alimentary part 

and so, **/i? devote to His service,^'* of the food pure. 
6 4ov A+, is the subject, "a«y bene/it 22. irXfov^Ca, covetousness, desire 

Corban, then ye suffer him no longer tenacity in retaining what has been got. 
to dOf dec. Kal mtroduces the apodosis, ' ** 

cf. Phil. L 22. Kal ri tUfr^ofuu : accord- iroyi|p(oi. The difference between 

ing to the casuistical interpretations of ^^^ word and ca/c£o— between TorripSs 

the schools a man might bmd himself and «a/c6s is, that the first noun and 

by a restriction of this sort for a time, adjective of the pair denote the out- 

and when he pleased throw it off and ward manifestation of that evil which, 

use the consecrated property for his when Ka/c6s and ica<cfo are applied to it, 

own purposes. ^^ looked on rather as dwelling in the 

10. This verse is doubtful, several mind, 
of the best MSS. omitting it Ao^yfio, daring, wanton insolence: 

19. KoOapClov, K« r. X. "purging iffwrla^ thriftless prodigality. 


24 iKiropeierai, Kal koivoi tov ivdpon'irov/* Kal iKcWev ivaaras 
iiTnjkOev els ra iieSSpia Tvpov koX ^iboivos. Kal elareXOi^v 
els oIkCov, ovbiva rjdeKe yvaivai, Kal ovk rjbvvridri kaBea/, 

25 ^AKOvaraa-a yap yvvf] irepl avrov, fjs ct^e to Ovyixpiov aur^s 

26 Ttv^pA iKiOaptoVf i\6ov<ra itpofriisecre irpos tovs irobas avrov* 
rjv 6e ^ yvjnj ^EXXrivlSf ^vpo(f>olvL(r(ra tS yiva* Koi fjpdra 

27 avTOP tva TO bcupAivLov iKpiXXfi iK Ttjs BvyaTpds avTrjs. *0 bi 
'Itjo-oCs cmtcv avT^, ""Aipes itp&Tov xopTaa-Orjvai to, T&va* 
ov yap KoKov iari \ap€iv tov Sprop tojv TiKV<iiVf koL ^aXeiv 

28 TOis Kvvapioi^r *H hi avcKpldrj Kal kiy€i> avT^, " Nal, Kvpie * 
Kal yap ra KVvipLa vvoKirui ttjs Tpaiti^qs ia-OUi iiro t&v 

29 yjfixl^v t£v vaibUov** Kal elirev avrfj, *' Aia tovtov toit 
Xoyov, viraye' i^eXrjXvOe to batiwviov iK ttjs Ovyarpos <rov.'* 

30 Kai iiTseKBovaa eU tov oTkov avr^?, ei^pe to baip.6viov i^ekq- 
Xvdbsf Kal Trfv OxryaTipa pepXrifiivriv iirl Ttjs kXCvtis. 

31 Kal 7raA.ii; i^€X6i»v iK t£v SpCoiv Tvpov Kal ^thcivos, rjXOe 
trpos rfjv d6Xaa-(rav 7^9 TaXiXaCas, avd fiitrov t£v dplcav Aexa- 

32 TToXeoDSf Kal <f>ipov(riv avT<^ K<i>(f>6v pLoyiX6Xov, Kal irapaKaXovaiv 

24 — 30. Also in Matt xv. 21 — 28. 28. vol, K^tc, k. t. X. Wratislaw 

Probably our Lord never passedbeyond {Notes and Dissertatums^ p. 6. ) object- 

the confines of the Holy Land : here ing to the translation of £. V. " Truths 

it is only to the frontiers of Tyre that I^d: yet the dogs eat,^^ &c that ica2 

He goes; and Matthew says the woman 7(i/> does not mean *^yety proposes to 

^^ came out of the same cocLsts^ translate: *'^yesy Lord, {it is right 

24. Xawtv. 2 aor. infin. \a»6i.v(a, though to take the children's 5read)j for 

26. Svpo^tvCKiovtL The best even the dogs eat,'' &c. or, "^«r, Lord, 
authorities are in favour of liipo. <f>oiul' {do heip me though), for even the dogs^" 
Kiffffa or Zvpa^otW/cto-o-o, a variation &c. : and Alford's explanation is in 
which does not affect the sense : the substance the same. 

usual reading is the more Grecian form ** Why should the Lord have pre- 

of the word. " sented Himself under so different an 

Syrophcenicia. This narrow strip "aspect to her, and to most other 

of country running along the shore "suppliants? Doubtless, because 

above anci below Tyre and Sidon, was ** He knew that it was a faith which 

the place whence the Phoenicians " would stand the proof, and that she 

originally sprang. Phoenicia is the " would come out with a stronger, 

Greek name of the country, taken from " mightier, purer faith than if she had 

the many palm trees found there. Its " borne away her blessing merely for 

native name is Canaan, meaning Low- " the asking." (Abp. Trench on the 

land. Having colonized Africa the Miracles, p. 353, edit 8.) 

settlers got the name of AiPvo^viKcs to 29. I(^'$^v0c, 3 sing. perf. indie 

distinguish them from the Zi;/)o0o£yt«e$. i^ipxofJMi. 

27. Xap«Cv, 2 aor. infin. \afipdp<o, 30. cjpc, 3 sing. 2 aor. act eifplaKta, 

ver. 3a-7.] S, MARJCS GOSPEL. 39 

33 avTov Iva iTTi0f\ avr^ ttjv X€Lpa, Kal a^oXajSo/xero; avrbv 
diTo Tov Sx.kov Kar Iblav, IfioKc tovs baKTvkovs avrov €ls ra 

34 (Sra avrov, Koi irrv(ras rjylraro rrjs ykda-aris avTov, kolI dva- 
fikiyjras cis tov ovpavov, iariva^c, kol Aeyet avT<p, ** 'E^^ada^*' 

35 S ioTL, ** AiavolxOriTU* Kat €vOi<i>s bt,rivoC)(0riaav avrov al 
aKoal* Koi iXvOrj 6 bcafios ttjs yXdaarjs avrov, Kal ik6X€i 

36 opOQs. Kal bicareCXaro avro'is tva firjbevl Anonaiv' 8a-ov bi 
avTOs avrois dteaWAAero, iiaXXov irepia-aorcpov iKripvaaov. 

37 Kal vTr€pV€pL(raa}S i^cTrXTfjaaovro, Xiyovres, *' KoAaJy wcirra 
iT€TTo(riK€' Kal T0V9 Kox^ovff voi€L aKovckVy Kal Tovs akiXovs 

VIII. 'EN iKcCvais rah fnxipaLS^ irapLirokkov S\kov SvroSy koX 
ixrj ixpvroiv rC <f>dy(aat,, Trpo(rKak€(rdfi€Vos 6 ^Irjaovs rovs 

2 ixa&Tjrds avrov kiyci avrots, " ^kayxyiCoimi inl rov Sx,kov 
8ri fjbrj fjiJiipas rpcLS vpoayLivaval fAoi, koH ovk l\ov<n rC 

3 <l)dy(0(rt,' Kal idv dirokva-a) avrovs vrjareis €ls oXkov avroav^ 
€KXvdrj(rovrai €v r^ 6b^' rivis ydp avroiv pjaKpodev iJKaa-t." 

4 Kal dTTCKpCdrjaav avrcp ol ixaOriTal avrov, "H66€V rovrovs 

5 bvvrjaeral ris (Sbe xoprdaoM dpronv i-n iprjixCas ; " Kal ivripdra 
avTovs, " Hoaovs Ix^^ aprovs ; " Oi be cTvoVy *' 'Ewrd." 

6 Kal Traprjyy€(J<€ r<p ox^cp dvaTr€a'€LV iirl rfjs yfjs' Kal kafiiiP 
rovs iirrd aprovSy €VX<^P''<^o-<^s iKkaac Kal edidov rots fxaOri' 

7 rais aJrov, Iva rsapaOZa-k* koX irapiOriKav rep oxA^. Kal 
e?xor lx$vbui dkCya' Kal evkoyi^aas ehre irapaOtwai ical avrd, 

32 — 37. Mark alone relates this Galilee, not far fipom the spot where 

particular miracle. Matthew tells us the five thousand were fed. 
XV. 30. in general terms that " Jle 2. For ^(i^pas, all best MSS. read 

heal^ many lame, blind, dufnb, li/iepai, which materially alters the 

maimed," construction; TpoafUvovffi in that case 

34, liUKied is the imperative, 2 ^* ,<lat. plur. of the part, instead of 

sing. masc. Ethpeelof the Aramaic verb 3 pl^r. pres. md. : and a hteral trans- 

*pthach; to open. l^^io'^ viOxX^ run, There are already 

^ J • Tn. » r • J three days to them remaining with me, 

1. ?r^^ flJ' a .^ ^ 5 • <^n^ f^^^^S^ OT {yet they have) nothing 
had followed him, and the command is ^^ ^^^ „ ^ou^^^being either part, or 
given to both them and hmi. ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^:^^ construction, 

VIII. I — 9. Related by Matt. Acts xxiv. 11. 
XV. 32 — 39. The miracle was probably 3. Wjorfis, from v^ffns-toy. (vvf 

wrought on the E. side of the Sea of icOlta), 


8 ''E(l>ayov bi, koI ixopTiaOrja-av' kclL Jjpav Trepta-crev/uuira icXa(r- 

9 fiiTciiv, iirrh airvpihas, ^Haav bi ol (t>ay6vT€S <is TerpcLKur" 
xC\ioi' Koi &vi\v(r€v avrovs. 

10 Kai €vB4a>s iiMfias eh to ttXolov jjierh r&v luxBrjToiv avrov, 

11 ^X0€V eh TOL ixiprj Aakiiavovdd, Kal i^KOov ol ^api<raToi, 
Kol jjp^carro avCrjTciv avrcp, Cv'''^^^^ ^^P* avrov (rr)\ielov airo 

12 Tov oipavovy TT€ipiO>VT€s ovTov, Kal ivaarevi^as r<p irveiixaTL 
avTov A^et, **T^ iy yevea avrrj arnxeiov iinCrjTeT; afiriv kiyon 

13 vfuv, el boOrjo-eTai, rfj yeve^ TOUTtf oTjfjieiov.^' Kal i^els 
avTov?, ifxpds v6Xlv els to irXolov, amjXdev els to vipav. 

14 Kal iiTekAOovTO ka^ew aprovs, koI el /x^ Iva aprov 

15 ovK eX^ov [JLeff iavroiv iv r^ irXotco. Kal dteor^AXero aiJroig, 
kiyoiv, '* *Opar€, pkiireTe iwo r^y C^fA'?^ '"^^ 4>apt<raift)i; ical 

16 T^y C^jMris *H/)<iJ8oi;." Kal dteXoy^^oi^o wpoy oXXi^Xov;, keyov' 

17 res, ''"On dpTovs oihc Ixo/xev." Kal yvoi;? o 'Iryo-oCy Xeyet 
avrot9^ " Tl biakoylCe<rde, on aprovs ovk Ix^''^ > oStto) roetrc, 
ovde orovleTe; in TteiroipaiiJLevrjv ^xere Trjv KapbCav vpjiv i 

18 6(f)0(ikiJLOvs i\ovTes ov pKeireTe; koL (Zra ^xpirres ovk iKovere ; 

19 Kal ov pLjrrjfxovevere ; ore tovs itkirre aprobs eKkcura els Tois 
ireirraKifrx^ikCovs, iToaovs K0(j>lvovs Trki^peis xkaa-fiiTOiv ijpare ; *' 

20 Aiyova-iv a-ir^, " AoSdcKa." ""Ore bi tovs iirra els tovs 
rerpaKLcrxikCovs, ir6a-(av (nrvpCba>v irkrjpiip.aTa kkaa-fiaToiiv 

21 rjpaTe*/* 01 bi elitov^ '''Eirra." Kal ikeyev avTols, *' IIoSs 
ov crvvCeTe;^* 

10. AaX|iavov0d. A town pro- ii— 13. Request for a sign. 

bably on the w. side of the lake. As In Matt xvi I — 4. 
S. Matthew (xv. 39.) substitutes Mag- 11. ircipdtovrcs, tempting — put- 

dala or Magada for it, the two places ting to the proof TvitA a bad object, 

cannot have been far apart. Magdala BoKifid^ip, to test, put to the proof 

is the modem £1 Madschdd^ on the with a giwd object: used of the trials 

sw. of the lake not far from Tiberias, to which men are subjected by God. 
About a mile from Magdala, near the 12. cl Sod^jorcrau el is almost 

mouth of a glen, there are the ruins equivalent to num^ being used Uke it, 

of a village. This is probably the site and the Heb. * im ' to put a question 

of Dalmanutha. It should be noticed to which the answer * «f? * is expected, 

that in this passage one or two MSS. cf. Matt. xix. 3 ; Luke xiv. 3. Some 

read Magada instead of Dalmanutha ; MSS. both here and in Luke, mis- 

an attempt to bring the two passages imderstanding the construction, read 

into literal agreement. od for el. 

14 — 21. Also in Matt xvi. 5 — 12. 

ver. 22--31.] S. MAJRIC'S GOSPEL. 4 1 

22 Kal ipxcrai eh BrjOa-aXbiv' Kot (fiipovtraf ai}r^ rwfiXov, 

23 kclL irapaKoXova-u; airbv tva avrov A^T^rat. Kal hrtXafioiAcvos 
Ttjs X€Lp69 Tov Tv<l>Xov, i$rjyay€v airrbv Ifco ttjs Kdfxris' Kal 
irrio'as €ls to, SfjifMra avToVy iiriBels ras x^^^^ avr^y iirqpiTa 

24 avrov cl n fikeirei* Kal &va/3X^a9 iXeye, '^Bkeira> rov9 

25 avOpdvovs, Sti &s bevbpa 6p& TrepLTrarovvrasJ* EZra irikiv 
iiriSriKc Ths x^H^^ ^^^ ^^^ d(f>6a\px>vs outov, Kal eirolrjaev 
avTov ivafikhlrar Kal iiroKaTtcnriOrif Kal tvipkeyjfe rqkavy&s 

26 iiroirra;. Kal iLviirretkev avrov els tov oIkov avrov, kiy(ov, 
" Mrjbi €19 TTiv KdpLTjv €l<rik&[is, firjb^ ehrris tuA iv rp Kdyqn!* 

27 Kal iffikdev 6 ^Irja-ovs koJL ol iiaOriToi airov els ras Kdfms 
Ka^aapeCas rijs ^ikhnrov Kal iv t^ 6d<p hnipdra rovs fiaSri' 
TCLS avTOv, kiyuiv avToU, '^TCva fie kiyovaiv ol ivOpoavoi 

28 cZvat;" 01 bi iveKpCOrja'ap, "*l<aivvrjv tov Baimarriv' 'KoI 

29 akkoi ^HkCav* ikkoi bi tva r&v ispofftriT&v.^ Kai avTos kiyei 
avTots, ** ^Tfiels bi rCva p,e kiyere elvai ; " ^AiroKpiOels bi 6 

30 HeTpos keyei atJrcp, "2v €* 6 Xptoros" Kal i'neTlp.'qaev 
avTolsy tva ixrjbevl XcyoNri vepl avrov. 

31 Kal rjp^aTo biibiSLfTKeuf avTOvs, Sn bel tov vlov tov ivOpiaTrov 

22 — 26. Peculiar to S. Mark. 25. liro(i|<rcv wMv dvapXli|rai. 

Bi|0orai8dv, on the E. side of the lake. For this clause the best editors sub- 

24. fXhm roit9 &v0p^ovs stitute St^/SXe^ei^. 

vcpivaro^yvTos, ^^ I see men : for I see 27 — 30. Matt xvi. 13 — 20; Luke 
them wcUking as it were trees J** So ix. 18 — 21. are paralleL 
Alford, and explains by saying that he 27. Kourapcfcis rfi^ #iXCinrov. 
saw the men indistinctly as trees in the Only mentioned besides in Matt xvi. 13. 
hedgerow flit by the traveller. Trench, Supposed by some to be the Baal-Gad 
adopting the translation of the £. V,. of Josh. xiii. 5. it was situated near the 
remarks: Certain moving forms he sources of the Jordan; rebuilt by Philip, 
saw about him without the power of tetrarch of Trachonitis, and son of 
discerning their shape and magnitude ; Herod the Great, and by him called 
trees he should have accounted them half after himself and half after the 
from their height, and men from emperor. Before Philip rebuilt it the 
their motion : he also assumes that the name was Paneas. Must not be con- 
man was bom blind ; in that case it is frised with the other Caesarea on the 
difficult to see how he could have sea-coast, which was the civil capital 
previously known enough about the of the whole country at this time, 
appearance of trees to compare any- 31 — IX. i. Announcement of 
^ing to them. Some explain the Christ's sufferings, and the rebuke of 
gradual steps in this cure as pointing Peter arising therefrom. Related by 
to the imperfection of the man's own Matt. xvi. 21 — ^28 ; Luke ix. 22 — 27 : 
faith. the latter omits the rebuke of Peter. 

42 S. MARK'S GOSPEL. [Ch. IX. 

iroXXa TsaQ^v^ k<oX iTroboKifia<r6fjvai ivb t&v vpctrpyripoiv 
Ka\ &pxi.€p€u>v Koi ypafjLfxarioiv, kclL &TroKTav07Jvai, jcal ixera 

32 Tp€LS fip,ipas ivaarrjvai' Kai Ttafipria-Cq tov koyov i\6X€L, 
Kal 'iTpo<r\ap6iA€Vos airbv 6 Hirpos ripiaro imiLix^v avT^» 

33 *0 bi feiorpa^cly, koI Ibiav tovs /bta^ryrds avTov, iirerCfjiria-c 
T<p IIcTp^, Xiyoiv, ""Tvaye 6wf<ra> fiov, ^arava* Stl ov 

<f)pOV€LS TO, TOV &€OVf iWo. TCL T&V dvOpdlTOiVy 

34 Kal irpo(ricaA.€(ra/x€i;o9 tov S^kov avv tois fJxu&rjTaLS avTov, 
elirev avrots, "^Oaris Oikci dirCa-ca fiov ikd€iv, avapvrj(rd<r0(o 
iavTov, KoX dpaTOi tov aravpov avTOVy Kal dKo\ov$€CT(ii> jjlou 

35 *0s yap &v OiXri r^i; yln)\fjv avTov (rSaaL, diroKiirti avrriv, 
*0s 5' &v dvoXiaji rrfv ylrvxrjv oJtov iv€K€V iiiov koL tov 

36 evayyeXCov, ovto9 o'do'CL oJttJv* TC yap &(j>€Xria-€k iv$pa>Tiov, 
^dv KepbrfOTj tov Koafiov SXov Kal ^77/uita)^ r^r yjfvxfiv avTov ; 

37 fj t( bdaci dvOpodiros dvrdXXaypLa ttjs '^fv\T]s avrov ; *0s yap 

38 &v iTrai(r)(yv$fj p.^ kcX tovs ifxovs Xoyovs iv Trj yeve^ ravTjy 
tt) lAotxaXibi Kal b.pMpTa>X^, Kal 6 vlbs tov dvOpdirov iTraiarxvv^ 
6T](r€Tai adrbVf orav iXOji iv TJj bo^ tov vaTpbs avToS piCTd . 

IX tSv dyy€X(»>v Toiv iLyCQ>v,^* Kal iXcycv avToh, " 'A/x^r Xiyoa 

vpLLV, oTi €lai TLvis Toiv (Sde iarrjKOTCtiv f ofrivcs ov p,rj yeucrcor- 

rat OavaToVf i(os dv Idoxri Trjv fiaa-iXcCav tov 0€oS iXriXvBviav 

iv dwa/xet." 

2 Kal ixeff rjp,€pas ^f TsapaXapL^dv^i o ^lr\(Tovs tov Ylirpov 

The arrangement of chapters just here that some of those there present should 

is unfortunate, making ix. i. belong to not die before the destruction of Jeni- 

the events of the Transfiguration, salem. This is the *f<w*/«^* to which 

whereas it evidently belongs to what our Lord here refers : though no doubt 

goes before : this mistake is all the the words point at the Transfiguration 

more strange as it was avoided in the as well, which was a foreshadowing of 

exactly par^lel passage of S. Matthew, that further manifestation. 

35 — 37. In translating these verses 2 — 13. The Transfiguration. 

it seems best to render ypvxfi by *^*/f* In Matt xvii. i — 13 ; Luke ix. 28—36; 

throughout. The A. V. uses * /i/e 'in on this cf. Trenci, Studies on the 

ver. 35, and * soul' in ver. 36 and 37. Gospds, 

37. S^crci dvOponros. These words 2. ^fUpas S(. So S. Matthew, 

are of doubtful authority. If they be S. Luke says, *'*^ about an eight days 

omitted the translation will be, "Or after;'' including probably the day or 

what will be an equivalent for his lifeV part of a day at each end of the space 

IX. I. cUrl Tvv^ K. T. X. i, e, of six days. 

ver. 2—11.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 43 

KcX rov *ldK(oPov koL top ^lomvjrrjv, koL dva(t>ip€i avrohs els 
opos vyjrqkdv Kar Iblav ia6vovs' koL iA€T€fJLop(f>(i6rj IfiirpoaOcv 

3 avToiv, Koi ra liidrta avTOV iyivtro arCKpovra, Xcvxd \Cav 

4 &s x^^^' ^^ yva<l>€vs iirl rfjs yrjs oi biivarai kevKavat, Kal 
<S<t>6r] avTOis ^HXCas <rvv Maxrei, Koi fjaav ovkKaKovvrcs rf 

5 'Iryo-ov. Koi diroKpiOeh 6 Hirpos Aeyci rep 'Itjctov, *'*Pa)8/3l, 
KoXov ioTLV Tjims (Sde e&ai* koL Trotifo-co/xev (TKrivds rpeh, (rol 

6 fJiCav, KOL Moxrei /xfar, Kal 'HA£^ fxCavJ* OiJ yap ^det tC 

7 XaAifoT;* ryo-ov ya/t) Ik^o)3o(. Kal iyivcTO V€(f>i\ri ^irto-icta- 
^ovo-a avrot9' Kal ijA^c ^a>i^ iK rfjs V€<l>€\riSy Kiyova-a, 

8 *' OvTos i(m,v 6 ulcfs yiov 6 dyamyros • avroS dKOfC^r^^ Kal 
i^dviva TT€pipk€\lrdfA€VOL, ovK€TL odbiva eiboVy dkkd tov 'It^o-oSi; 

9 ijl6vov yL€&* kavT&vr l^ara^aivovTinv h\ avr&v dirb rov Spovs, 
dieoTCiAaro avToh tva piribcvl biriyrjaoavrai & ctbov, el tiff orav 

10 6 vlbs TOV dvOpdirov iK v€Kp£v dvaarfj, Kal rov kdyov iKpd" 
Tri<rav itpos iavrovs, crvCriTovvres tC i<m to, iK v€Kp£v dvaa-' 

11 TTJvau Kal iirqp<iT<ov aiJrov, Aeyowcy, "*'Ori kiyovtnv ol 

2. XpositlnA^v. Not Mount Tabor trance, and the word (Gen. xv. 12.) 
the spot where tradition places the translated deep sleep, means ^trance ;"* 
scene of the Transfiguration, for that it is the word used (Gen. ii. 21.) to 
had been occupied as a stronghold express Adam's condition when Eve 
from very early times, and Josephus, was formed. {lence it seems more 
A. D. 6o, describes how he strengthened correct to suppose that the glories 
works already existing : therefore on it revealed, bemg more than human 
our Lord would have been anything nature could bear, caused them to fall 
but KtkT Idiajf fiSjfoi (cf. Diet. Bible, sv. ) into this trance, than to suppose that 
Probably the place was somewhere in they were sleepy because it was the 
the range of Hermon. natural time for being in that condition. 

3. AcvKol XCav. From the intensity 4. 'HXCas cr^ McmtcC The repre- 
and purity of the light which shone sentatives respectively of the Prophets 
through them. That the Transfigura- and the Law. The Apostles knew who 
tion took place at night is probable, they were by intuition. " The vision 
because the radiance attending it which showed the men imparted also 
would then be much more easily seen; the names of the men." So Trench, 
and because S. Luke (ix. 37.) says, it comparing the case of S. Paul who sees 
was *^^Jie nexf day," when they came in a vision a man named Ananias 
down. The disposition to sleep felt by coming in. 

the Apostles is sometimes adduced as J<^Ot|. 3rd sing. I aor. Pass, of 

a proof, but this may be best explained irreg. bpd(a, 

by comparing the case of Abraham 7. ^W^ One purpose served by 

(Gen. XV. 12.), on whom at a similar it was, to answer Peter's proposal, cf. 

juncture a deep sleep fell. In fact it ver. 5. 

was with them as with S. Peter on the 11. (ki X^yovotv. As the inter- 
house-top at Joppa, they fell into a rogative pronoun rl and its correlative 


12 ypayLnoTMiS, on *HX£av Set ikO^iv vpSrov;** *0 bi dTroKpi0€ls 
€lir€V aikoLs, *^*HkCas fiiv ikOi^v Ttp&roVt dvoKcuOun^ vdvra* 
Kot v£s yiypairraL hrl top vlov tov dvOpdvoVy tuaJteXXd isdOy 

13 KOLi i(ovb€Wi>$^, 'AAXa Kiy(a vjuv, 8tl Kai ^HXCas ^AifAv^c, 
Kot iTToCrfa'av avrcp oa-a fjOikria'ap, KaOm yiypavrai iv avrop**' 

14 Kol ikOiiV vpos Tovs lAaQriTCLs, €lb€P S\\op irokifv irepl 

15 avTovs, Koi ypaiMiMTeiS (rvCriTOVpras avroh* Kal ^xfOioas vas 
6 ox^os Ibinf avrbv, i^tOaiMPrjOrij koL tspocrrpiyjypTes ri<md(QVTO 

16 ainop, Kal iwjpdrria-e Toifs ypaiinar^ZSf ** Tf ov^TCtre vphs 

17 adTfy&;;^^ Kal &7roKpi^ets eh iK tov o\\ov, eZire, *' Atbda-Kake, 

18 TjpeyKa top vUp ixov vpo^ ae, ixppTa vpev/ui AkaXop. Kal 
Sttov dp airbv KaToXdpri, pri<rfT€i airrdp* kclL i<l>pCC€i, Kal rpi^ei 
Toifs ibopras ovtov, koI (ripaCperaL" kclL etvop tois fiadrjTah 

19 (TOV ipa airro iKpikourt, ical ovk laxwrop** *0 bi iLiroKpiOcls 
avT^, kiyeif "^Q, y€P€a iviaroSf la>f TrJre ?rpd9 ipJas ia-ofiai ; 

20 la>9 TTore ipi^otiai vpj&p ; (piperc ain-bp irpos fie." Kal rjpcyKop 
avTop TTpb^ avTOP' koX Ibo^p airbp, €vQi(ii>s rh Trrev/xa itmipa^ep 

21 avToi;* Kol Treo-o)]; ^^l ttjs yrjs, iicukCeTo i<f>pCC(»iP, Kal 
iTnjpdTqae rhp vaTipa avrov, " Tl6<ros ')(ji6pos ^orlr, is twto 

22 yiyoP€P aiiT^ ;** ^O bi ttire, *' TLaiibMtP. Kal voXXdLicis avrbp 
Kol €ls vvp l/SaAe ical eh iSbara, tpa iLTro\i<rri ovtop' iX)C el 

23 ri bvpoa-ai, porjOriaop tuxlp, anrXayxPiO'Beh ^^' ^/Jtas." *0 5i 
'Ii^o-ovs elirei' air^y to ** €l bUpcurai Triorevo'at* vivTa bvpara 

Uti are used interchangeably, cf, 17. ilvcYKa^ perf. ist sing. 4>4pta. 

Donaldson, Greek Gram, article 413 18. oirov &v oMv KaraX&Jf^ 

{aa) : so are they when used as adverbs The symptoms answer to those of 

= ^wky^ cf, ver 28 infra, epilepsy. 

12. Kal irfif Kal {(ovScvtiOj, 19. %m 'v&n. vf^ ^|Mf» k> ▼• k. 

Perhaps the best way of constructing Someapplythese words to the disciples; 

this sentence is to put a mark of inter- others to the multitude : probably they 

rogation after k^iovi^vioQ^ " And hew are intended for neither exclusively. 
is it written of the Son cf Man^ that He 20. irfor^v, part. .2 aor. Trlrna. 

should suffer muehy and be set at IkvXCcto, 3rd sing, imperf. mid. jcvX/w, 

nought f " If not we must make trCai see under KvKlvbta. 
depend on eZrev. '* And He recounted 23. th cl S^vootu irurrtCinu The 

hew it is written of the Son of Man meaning of this is very much disputed. 

thatf*^ &c. Some punctuate as follows : rd, el 

14 — 29. ^Iso in Matt xvii. 14 — Si^murai inffreOffOLf and translate : " The 

21; Luke ix. 37 — ^45. S. Mark's question is^ whether thou canst believe*^' 

account is the most vivid. Others put a comma after irto-reucrflu 

ver. 24-35.] ^. MARK'S GOSPEL. 4S 

24 r^ mwreiovTiV Kol ev^^ca; Kpi^as 6 irarrip rov 7r€uibCov, 
fjtCTO baKpva>v l^eyc, *^ ITiaTet/a), Ki/pie fio^Oei {xov Tjj iLTTLorlq,** 

irvcviMari r^ iKaOifyna, Xiyayv avrcp, '^ Td vrcvfia rd &Aa\ov 
jcol K(g>(j>bv^ iyti (TOi ^irtrdo'O'a), i^iKO€ i( airov, kclL fiT^Keri 

26 tlaikOris eh avrdv.** Kai Kpa^cof, Koi iroXXh anrapi^av ainroVy 
i^k0€' Kot iyivero axrel v€Kpos, &ar€ ttoAXov; Xlyeip Sri 

27 ividavcv. *0 d^ *I)y(roOy Kparrjaas avrhv Ttjs x^*/^*> 7Jy€ip€V 

28 ovroz;* koI ij/ioTr;. Kai elo-eX^ovra avrii/ €2$ oikoz^^ ol 
/xa^rol avroO ivripdro^v avrbv icar' Idfai;^ ''"Ort i7/ui€ts ov/c 

29 rjhjvrj0Tjfi,€V iK^akctv cojto;** Kal ctirep avrohf ^'Tovto to 
yivos iv oJbevl b'6paTax i^tkdeu;, el fii; iv irpo<r€V)Qi Kot 

30 Kol iKtWev i^€\66vT€s vapeiropeiovro bih ttjs FaXtAa^a;* 

31 Kot ovK rj0€k€v iva TLs yvS* 'EdiSao-KC yap robs iJMdrfrhs 
avTov, KOL eXeyei; auVoty, " "On 6 vtos rov ivOpdirov itapabl" 
borai els \eipas ivOpdvo^v, koX airoKrevova-iv avrov* koL 

32 iiroKTovdeis^ ry rpirri fifUptj^ iLvaaTrja-eraL** OV be riyvoovv 
TO prjfAa, Kal iipofiovvTO avTov hrepoiynja-oLf 

33 Kal ^kOev els Kaitepvao^fi' Kal iv rfj oUCf^ yevoiievos, 
iirripdTa avtobst ** TC iv rfj 6b^ irpos iavroifs bieXoyCCetrOe ; '* 

34 Oi bi ia-tdTroav* irpbs iXkrjXovs yhp bi€\ix!^ri<rav iv rfj 6b^, 

35 tCs ixelC^v. Kal KaOCtras iilxivqa-e Toifs bdbeKa^ ical \iyei 
avToh, "El Ti5 dikei irp&ros ehai, iarat isianoiiv itryaTOs^ 

and no other stops : translating, 31, 32. Announcement of His 

yesus said to him the (usual) sayings SUFFERINGS. Matt. xvii. 22, 23 ; 

' If thou canst bdieve all things are Luke ix. 44, 45* 
possible to him that believethy Others 31. diroKTfVoO<riv. 3rd plur. fut. 

take iriffT€Vff<u as imperative, and ind. diroKT€Lv<a. diroKravOcls, part, 

punctuate : r6, el bi^va<r<u, Tltrrevffcu, 2 aor. Pass. drroKTeivu). 
Believe thy word ' if thou canst ; * i. e. 33 — 5a Matt xviii. I — 9 ; Luke 

believe what you have expressed by ix. 46 — 50, are similar, 
those words. 35. SidKovos, cm attendant in 

24. Po^fi uov Tq dvitrrC^ "The respect of his activity in work (from 

little spark of faith kmdled in his soul the same root as Sk^kw). ZovKoz, a 

reveals to him the abysmal depths of menial servant, slave, depdruw, a 

unbelief which are there " (Trench). voluntary follower — ^an esquire, inrri- 

27. dWcmi, 3rd sing. 2 aor. pirrii ({nr6-ip4rT<it), an qfficer or attend- 

dptffTTffU, ant in his official capacity. 

46 S. MARirS GOSPEL. [Ol IX. 

36 jcal TtivTfcv hiiKOVos** Kol kaficov vcuibCoVy iarria-ev ailro iv 

37 iiia-ij^ avT&v Kol ivayKaXuriiievos aurd, clirti; avrois* ***0s 
ioaf tv t£v TOioiTw; TraibCcov bi^rirai iitl r^ dvofmrC fwv, ijii 
d^erat* kclL os iaif ifti bi^rjTOA, oJk iiik bi\ercu, iXKh tov ^ 

38 ivooTtCkavri /xe*" ^AireKpCBrj bi avr^ 6 *loi>itnnis, Xiycav, 
** Atdao-KoXe^ eCboyiiv riva r^ dvoixarl <tov iK^iLKkovra bcuixovuL, 
is ovK iKoXovdtl fifiuf jcol iKOiXva'aiJLCv atlTov^ Sti ovk iicoXov- 

39 Oel rjfiw,*' 'O bi 'Iiyo-oSy ciwe, **M^ iccaXi^ere avroi/" ovdet? 
yip ioTiu bs Troii^o-ei bvvcLfuv ivl r^ dvoixarC {xov, Kot bvirrfa-eroL 

40 Taxv KafcoXoy^o-of /ic. *0? yap oiJic lori jcad* vfmv, vvip 

41 v/juiSi; ^orriv. ^Os yhp iv TrorCirri vfms iron^piov ibaros hf r^ 
Svofxarl fjLOV, Sti Xpiarov iar^^ ififfv Aeyo) iiuv, oJ iiif iLTroXiaji 

42 Tov pLurOov aifTOV, Kal bs iv (TKavbaXCari iva tUv fUKp£v 
T&v TTiaTevovTdov eh ipi, koXov iariv avT<^ [loKKoVy €l irtpC- 
K€LTai \Cdos iJLvKiKos TTtpl t6v TpiLyjikov avTOVf KcX pipXrirai 

43 €h Tijv $i\a<r(rav» Kai ihu aK<wbak((ji ere ^ \€Cp aov, iiro' 
Koyjfov airriv koXov (tol iarl kvXXov eh rriv C^ifV ela-eXOea/, 
fj rhs bvo \eipas iypvra iLiseXBelu eU ripf yievvav, eh rd mp 

44. rb ia-peoTov, ovov 6 a-Kdkrj^ avrSv oiS rekevr^, kolI to irvp 

45 ov (T^ivwTau Kal iav 6 itovs aov aKovbakCCp ce, ivoKO'^ov 
avTov' KoXov earl (toi elaeXBelv eh t^v ^osi^v \(iikoVf tj tovs 
hvo Ttobas i)^ovTa fiXridrjvai, eh ttjv yievvav, eh to irvp tS 

46 iapeaTov, oirov 6 o-icciAi/^ avrSv ov reXevr^, Kal to imp ov 

47 (rfiivwTOn. Kal iav 6 d<l>ddKpi6s a-ov a-KavbakCCri a-e^ lic/SoXe 
avTov KoXov 0*04 earl \iov6<f>6aKiu)v eWeXOelv eh rijv paa-tkeCav 

36. lon|<rfy, 3rd sing. I aor. Act 43. Xfiti^f animal life, the exact 

tffTTifu, opposite to Odyaros, shared by men 

38. This verse is often used to and beasts alike, ploi is either tA^ 

argue from in favour of separatists, duration of life^ I Pet. iv. 3 ; or, the 

Yet our Lord does not, as some have manner of Itfe^ I Tim. ii. 2 ; or, the 

said, encourage the man for his separa- means of life, xii. 44. infra, 
tion, or even commend him for it : He 44 — ^46. The text is in a somewhat 

only chides His apostle for hindering disturbed state here. Most editors 

the man. agree ill either rejecting altogether ; or 

42. XCOos fivXiKbs. The best MSS. at least marking as spurious the whole 

read /nrJXoj dviKbi, a mill-stone turned of ver. 44 ; the words c/j rb xvp rd 

by an ass, i. e. larger than the ordinary AaPearov in ver. 45, and the whole of 

kind. p^pXi)Tai| 3rd sing. perf. Pass. ver. 46. 
pdKKw, 47. |u>v6(^6aX|iov, in ordinaiy 

ver. 48-11.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 47 

Tov 0€oS^ ^ dvo d(l>0aXfiov9 ixpvra pXrjOfjvaL els ttiv yiewav 

48 rov wpbs, oTTov 6 GKdkq^ avroiv ov rcAcvr^, Kal t6 irvp ov 

49 apevwroL. Has yhp vupi iXi<r$rj<r€Tai, koI iraaa OvaCa a\i 

50 oKurdrja-trai' KoXoi; to &\as' eav bi to &Kas ivaXov yivrjTaif 
iv tCvi wJto iLprv<r€T€ ; ^xere kv iavroTs SXas^ koI eipijvcvere 
€V AAX?]Xots." 

X« KaKeWev ivaaras ifyxerai els ret opia rrjs ^lovbaCas, 
bth Tov Tsipav Tov ^lophivov koL avpLiropevovTai TrAXiv S^Xoi 
TTpds avTov' Kal &s eUodei, ir6Xiv ibCbaa-Kev ovtovs. 

2 Kal irpoo'eKOovTes ol ^apuraloL iirqpdTqo'av avToVf el 

3 i^eariv iofbpl yvvalKa iTToXvaaif iteip&CovTes avTov, *0 bi 

4 inoKpLdels etirev otiTols, ^TC ifuv eveTeCkaro Mcoo^s ;" Ol 
bi etnov, " Maxrrjs i'niTpe\lr€ fiifiXlov iTrooTaa-Cov ypdylfai, 

5 Kal iiroXva'au* Kal iiroKpiOels 6 ^Iricovs etirev airroXs^ ** Hpbs 
rifp aKXTjpoKapbCav v/uuSr iypa-^ev vyxv Tqv ivrokriv ra'Crriv' 

6 i/nh b\ &pxrjs Krla-eoDS, &p(rev Kal Srjkv iTroCqaev aiJrovs 6 ©ecfy. 

7 '"EveKcv TOtJrov KaTakeCyjfei ivOpomos Thv itaTipa 
avTov Kal T^iv p,r\Tipay Kal TTpoo'KoWrjOrja'eTai irphs 

8 TTIV yvvalKa avTov, Kal itrovTai ol bio els (rapKa p,lav^ 

9 "'XloTC ovKiri elal bvo, iWh p-Ca a-dp^* . *0 oiv 6 Gehs avvi" 

10 C^iev, ivOpooTios piii \a>pt,C^(o,^' Kal iv t^ ohCq, tt6Xiv ol 

11 pLa&qral avTov irepl tov avrov iTrripdrqa-av avTov, Kal klyet 

Greek means, * one-eyed,' i. e. bom so j purifying fire, this preserving salt, have 

hceving lost one eye would be expressed no such power, thou wilt be cast out. 

by ^6/)6^^aX/Lios, cf. Aristot. Rhet ill. Have this pledge of the covenant, this 

10. " The Lacedaemonians would not spirit of adoption in yourselves, and — 

allow Hellas to become bereft of one referring to die strife in ver. 33 — ^be at 

eye." peace with one another. 

48. Refers to Issd. IxvL 24. X, i. clcGOci. 3rd sing, plupf. 

49. Refers to Lev. ii. 13. (from lOw), used as impf. efcu^a, me 
42 — 50. The connexion of these perf. being used as pres. 

verses with what goes before, is accord- 2 — 12. Matt. xix. 3 — 9, is parallel : 

ing to Alford, as follows. The reason Luke xvi 18, is similar in sentiment, 
why it is better for thee to cut off and 4 Moto^ liri^pc^ in Deut. xxiv. 

cast away thine own members is, that I — ^4 

this is part of the salting purifying 7. "Evckcv TOilmrw cl« <rdpKa 

process, which thou the Bxitrio. must |i>Cav, quoted literally from LXX. Gen. 

undergo before thou canst enter into ii. 24 The words ol 5i)o (ver. 8.) are 

life. And if, from the nullity of the not in the Hebrew of Genesis, although 

grace of the covenant in thee, this implied by the context. 

48 S. MARK'S GOSPEL. [Ch. X. 

avroi^f "^09 ihv diroXi^aiy 'n\v ywauca avroS koI yaiArjarf 

12 iXXfiv, iioi\ar(u ht avnyv* iccu ibp ytwfi ivokimi rhv ivdpa 

13 Kci 7fpo<ri<l>€fK)v aiSr^ iraid^a, &a A^rat avrcav* ol Vk 

14 [JLaOriTat imtrCfiMV tols vpotripipovaiv. 'Idwv di 6 'IiycroS^ 
riyav6jcrri(r€, Kal €hr€v aJrois, '^'Aifxr^ ra vaiibCa lp\€ir$ai 
vpos fJL€, kclL ixff K<ok6€T€ ovvi* t£v yop TowvTaiP iariv ^ 

15 fiaaikfCa rov 0€oS* ifjirjv Xiyco iyXv, hs iav liSj dc^iyrai rfjv 
fiaaikcCop Tov ®€ov &s isoubCov, ov iifj ela-ikSij els avrrjv** 

16 Kol evayKoXiadfuvos avroLf ri^cls rds x^Tpas iv avra, tjvXoy€L 

17 Kal iicnop€vo\ihov avroS eU ihov, irpoabpaiiii^v €& koI 
yowTr€Tri<ras ovtov iirrjp^ra avTov, *' AtdciirKoAe iyade, tC 

18 voirja-to tva Ccafjv aldvtov KXripovoiArjiria ; " *0 H *lrj(rovs €tiT€V 
avTf}, "TC /x€ \iy€is &ya$6v; ovbels iyoBos, ei /x^ ^^^9 ^ 

19 0€os. Tas ivTokds oTbas, Mrj fioix^^^' I^V <l>ov€varis* /xi) 
KX^^/n/r iJifj \jf€vbofJLapnrvpriinis' firj iiroorepT/oi;;* rCiia rov 

20 varipa a-ov koX ttjv iiriripa*** *0 hi avoKpiBeh elirev avr^, 

21 '' Atd(i(ricaA.€^ raSra iravra i<l>vka$iiA'qv €k i/eonjros /lov." *0 
5^ 'It^o-oSs €/i/3\€^a; avr<p rjyiwfjaev avrov, koI clifer avr^, 
***'Ei; <rot voTcpet* ^Ttayc, Sa-a ix€is irdkrja-ov, icai 605 rots 
irra}xoi99 ical ^fct; Orjaavpov kv ovpaoftf' Koi bevpo, &Ko\ov0€i 

22 ftoii ^a$ Tozf aravpov.*^ *0 d^ anvyvia-as ivl. t^ Xoyy 

23 dir^X^e Xv^ot/fiei'os* ^v yap Ix^^ icnffAara iroWcL Kal 

13 — 16. Matt. xix. 13 — 15 ; Luke while ^iXI» denotes love of the affec- 
xviii. 15 — 17, are parallel. tions — affection, 8^, 2nd sing, imperal. 

16. TiOfts, part. pres. Act rlOrifu. 2 aor. Act SlBufu, 

leAo^L^'^u it-5S'%om; — Xof, ^^rs, those who have 

havelupposed that the ™ '^^ was ^^& "% *^PP?ff ,\ZJ^a''^Z 

Lazarus (cf. Diet. Bible, sv.f ^ f'''. ^^7. ^^ i^^^' ^ r ^ 

to MA i^L^/Wu.^* ..^A Aoi.«V'm«m» work hard for that. dfMis, part, i aor. 

S. Mark and S. Luke (cf. xvm. 20.) '^ 

put the seventh commandment before 22. \ynmb^jev9iii grieving generalfyf 

the sixth ; and so does S. Paul, Rom. which may or may not be accompanied 

xiii. 9. by outward manifestations : ircvOeiv^ 

21. 4^irT)<rcv. The distinction to mourn^ show grief by the conduct 

between irfo.ici.ta and 0tX^a;, is this: outwardly: OprfpeTv, to sing a dirge: 

i.yaTi.(a the Latin diligo, signifies love k6tt€i.v, to beat the breasts^ and so, to 

ari:>ing out of the judgment — esteem: lamettt. 

ver. 23-35.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 49 

TrepiPkfyjfifiivos 6 *l77<rot); kcy^i roU fiaffriTais avrov, '* TL&s 
. dvGTff JAa)9 ol rh \pfqiuiTa lx9vr€S els rrjv fiourikeCav rov &€ov 

24 eltreXeHaovTM'*' 01 bi ^laBryralL idaiMpovjrro ivl rots \6yoLs 
auTov, *0 5i 'Iiyows iraKw ivoKpiOeU \iy€L caJroh, " T^wo, 
TTiSff Ma-Kokov i<m tovs TreTroiBSras ivl rots yjffiiuurw eU riflf 

25 PatriXcCav rod ©eov ctcrcXdeu'. Ei/icoircire/M^i^ iari KifjLrikov 
hth Trjs TfWfjLoXias Trjs ^ouplbos elireXJdetv, fj irkovtriov €ls ttjv 

26 PaaiXeiaif rev ©eov €!<rcX^€U/." 01 h\ irfpitro-Qs i^tirki/ia-a'ovro, 

27 kSyovT^s irpA? icayroifSi **Kal rls Mvarou o-w^i/ai;" '£|x/3X^- 
^as bi avTOLS 6 'Iryo-oSs kiyti, ^^Uapa ipOpdirois iMvarov, 
iXk* ov Tsapa r^ 0e<p * Ttainra yhp bvvari i(m vaph t^ 0c^." . 

28 Kal rip^aro d'Hirpos kiycof avrcp, "^Iboh^ fnxeis i<l>'qKaiJL€V 

29 7(iin'a, Koi rJKokovdrja<iix(y <rou* ^AiroKpidels bi 6 ^Ir^irovs 
clircv, **'Afi^p kiy<o vyxif, oibek iariv, os i(fnJK€V oUCav, Ij 
iZ€k(l>oiis, rj idcA^^i fj iraripa, 1j fxryripa, ^ yvvauca, fj 

50 rixva, 1j iypovs, fv€K€V ifiov Koi tov €vayy€k(ov, iav fxq kifiri 
iKOTOVTaTTkcLtrCova vvv Iv rep icatp^ tovti^, oUCas Kal ideA^ovs* . 
Kol ib€k<f>as Kal puiTipas Kal riKva koX iypov^f piera buaypLciv, 

31 Kal iv T^ alQvi T<p ipxopiivif^ CiOTjp alivLov, IIoAAol bi 

32 iaovrat Ttp&Toi, ia^aroif Koi ol iayaroi vpoiToi** *H<raj/ bi 
iv T^ 0$^ ivapaivovres els ^UpoadkupLa* Kal ^v irpoiytav 
avTovs o *lrja-ovSy koI idapiPovvTO, Kal iKokovOovvres ^^0- 
ficvvTO, Kal irapakapiiv Tr6Xuf tovs biibcKa, rjp^aTO avrots 

33 kiyciv ra pJkkovra avT(^ avpLfiaCvetv' '^^Otl, Ibov, ivapai^ 
vopL€V els *l€po(r6kvpM, Kal 6 vlbs tov ivOpdirov irapabodi^a-eTai 
Tois ipx}epev(n icol rot; ypapjpxiTvifn^ kcX KaraKpofovtraf ainhv 
Bavirfff koI vapabdirovaiv avrbv rois tOvea-t, koI ipLTCfd^ovviv 

34 ai}r<^^ KoL pacm.ydo'oixnv aiJThv, Kal ipurrvirovtnv avr<p, koL 
iLTTOKTevowiv airov* koL t^ TplTfji fipApi^ ivaanjireTaiJ* 

35 Kal vpoaitopevovrai avr^ *l6x(dpos Kal *la>iwrjs ol viol 

23. doAc^ffvrrai. 3rdplur. fut 29. IJTuvalKa. The best authorities 
tlffipXo/AM, agree in rejecting these words. 

24. inwwMnSt aocos. plur. 2 30. XaPi^ 3rd sing. 2 aor. subj. 
pert part, weldu. XafApdpw, 

28. iu^4f/i^uif4». 1st plnr. I aor. 32 — 34. In Matt xx. 17 — 19 : 

Act. A^rifU. Lnke xviii. 31 — ^34. 


so A MARK'S GOSPEL. [Ch. X. 

Zc^ScSaftw, Xfyoi^€9, '^ Aidao-KoXe, 6iXofuv tva i iav oln;- 

36 iTwiuv, 7roi;^<rji9 fffuv.** *0 H €lir€P airois, *'Tf BiKere 

37 voirjo'aC fic ip(£i^ ; ** 01 d^ elirov avr^^ '^ Ads ^/iu^, tpa eU 
iK be^t&p aw Koi ets i( eidnwyimv aov KaBia(oii€v iv rfj h6(ri 

38 aovy *Q bi *hi<rovs clircp avrots^ " Ovk otbare tC alreur^c. 
Avvcur$€ meu' ri vorripLov i ty^ irCvoi, xal ro fiiTrrurfui o 
iyit Pam-tCofMn, PaTmaOrivai ; " 01 de clvov av-n^, ** Atfvi- 

39 fi€0a*^ *0 i^€ 'IiycroSs clirev avrois, ** Ti fiei/ iror^ptox; & iyi 
ir4»a>, vUirOe' km to pdirrurixa o ^ Pam-iCofiai, fiavrKr^ 

40 6ii<r€(r0€' ri d^ KoBUrai. iK bc^i&v \um koX i^ evtovviMOf {xov, 

41 ot)fC Icrnv ifibv bwvai, iXX* ots ^rof/Aacn-ai." Kcu dfcovcrai^e^ 
ol S^fca vip^avTO dyavoKT^uf irepl *laK<opav kojL 'I<oaia;ov. 

42 *0 dc *Ii7(rov9 Trpoo-KoAco-a/xevos cuirovs Xeyei avrols^ '* Otdare 
Sti ol boKovvT€S &px^^ t£v iOv&v KaTaKvpi€vov(riv avT£v 

43 Kal ol pLeydXoi avrSv Kort^o'idCovaw ovtSv. Ovx ovtoo bi 
ioTM iv vfAUf' dXk* ts idv Qikff yevea^tu piiyas iv vfxZv, 

44 lorat buiKovos ifjLoiv' koI is iv diXrj vfmv ycvitrOai vpciros, 

45 lorroi itavrmv bovKov koX yap 6 vlos rov dvOpdvov ovk rjkOe 
bioKovrjOfjvai, dXXa duucoy^craiy koL bovvai t^v ylfv^^v avrov 
k&rpov dvTi iroXkwv,*^ 

46 Kal Ipxovrai cis *Ic/9ixc^* Kci ixTFOp^vofiivov atJroS diro 
^IcpiXtt, fcol t£v iia6rfr£v avrov, jcal o\Xov iKaifov, v!os 

35 — ^45. This request, and the more literal and equally grammatical 

conversation arising out of it, are not translation would be : " ij nai mim to 

related by Luke. In Matt. xx. 20 — ^28. ^e, except to those for whom it U pre- 

38. vic£v. 2 aor. infin. iriviti, pared,^'* Y^t this sense of dXX^ cf. 

40. o^ loTiv k^ SoOvoi, dXX' (ix. 8. supra) dXXd rhuf 'IrjffoOy. 

ots ^^To(|Mi9Tcu, cf. Matt. XX. 23. In 42. ol SokoOvtis Aax^v, ^* those 

both these passages the K V. trans- who, are reputed to rule. God alone 

lates the words quoted as follows : really rules. 

'* But to sit on my right hand, <Srv. is 45. dvrC, instead of in the place 

not mine to give, but (it shall be given of — inr4p as distinct from this means, 

to them) for whom it is prepared.^* in behalf of for. The former preposi- 

The words in parenthesis being printed tion brings out clearlv the vicarious 

in italics to mark that they are sup- nature of Christ's deatn. That Christ 

plied. Hiere is not much objection diedy^ us (inrip), would not proye^ as 

m point of grammar to supplying ian-l does, that if He had not died in 

^o0^ff€T9jL from the preceding oodvou: place of us, lex^ must have died, 

but the sense yielded is somuewhat 46 — 52. Related by Matt xz. 

objectionable, becbuse it seems to limit 29 — 34 ; Luke xviii. 3$ — 43. 

our Lord's power as Mediator. A 46. 'Iipix^, Heb. Yraychow, i.e. 

■^"^■^•"■^ • ■ ^i 

ver. 47, 4S.] . S. MARK'S GOSPEL: 5 > 

Tl\mIov BaprliJMios 6 tv(I>Xos iKaOfiro vapcL rfjv Hov irpoa-ai" 
47 Toiv. Kol dicoviras in ^IrjiroSs 6 Na^^paios i<mv, ijpiaTo 

KpdC^w KoX kiyew, "^O vlos Aa0ih, *lif<roS, ikitia-ov fxe*'* 
4^ Ral irferlyMV avr^ iroXAol, tm (rimirqtrjn* 6 hi iroXXy imlKKov 

probably the fragrant with spices: continued to be of some importance 

3ome have proposed deriving it from through the first six centuries of the 

a word meaning the moon : others from Christian era ; but in the seventh 

a root meaning to be broad, because it century, possibly frt>m the effects of 

was in a wide plain, but the first deri- earthquake, possibly from the ravages 

vation is the oest First mentioned of war, it began to dwindle, and has 

Joshua it I. sqq. in the narrative of long been nothing larger than a village^ 

the spies : those events and its destruc- surrounded in the middle ages by 

tion (chap. vi. ) are too well known churches and monasteries. 

to need recapitulation. After the Baf»rC)uuos, * bar Htnai^ son of 

curse pronounced upon the city by Timai, which is possibly the Greek 

Joshua (vi. 26.), although [probably riiiii, hence his fiather may have been 

some few houses remained on the old a notable person. S. Mark alone 

site (c£ 2 Sam. x. 5.), it does not mentions any name; S. Matthew 

appear again till it was rebuilt by Hiel speaks of 5do rv^o< ; S. Luke of 

of Bethel in the days of Ahab : then T»^b% m, S. Matthew also says the 

it becomes more important There cure was wrought **as they departed 

the sons of the prophets had settled ; from Jericho ; in this agreeing with 

and in its neighbourhood Elijah was our Evangelist; while S. Luke fixes 

carried up into heaven in a whirlwind the time of the miracle as taking place : 

(2 Kings ii- passim). The name occurs " when He drew nigh to Jericho,^'* 

again in Ezra ii. 34. where the children That S. Matthew mentions two men, 

of Jericho to the number of 345 are while S. Mark and S. Luke mention 

mentioned as returning from the Cap- only one, is no real contradiction ; 

tivity ; and in Neh. iiL 2. the men of one for some reason or other became 

Jericho are said to have helped in more prominent than the other, per- 

building the sheep gate. This is the haps remained when cured in our 

last notice we have of it in O. T. In Lord's company, while the other 

the N. T. with the exception of this hastened away to his friends. That 

passage and the parallels, the name the two earlier Evangelists should 

only occurs in the parable of the Gk)od place the miracle at the going out 

Samaritan (Luke x. 30. ) ; and in the from, while S. Luke places it at the 

enumeration of the deeds of faith entering into, the town, is not so easy 

(Heb. xi. 30). The site of the town in to explain. The best solution seems 

our Lord's da3rs must have been much to be, that as our Lord in the after- 

the same as that of the town which was noon approached Jericho He was 

miraculously destroyed under Joshua, solicited by one of these men, possibly 

viz. near die copious fountain after- the unnamed one, and that next day 

wards healed by Elbha, in the plain as He went out this man hadijoined 

bounded E. and w. by barren moun- Bartimaeus, the more fervent suppliant, 

tains. Through the midst of this great then Jesus healed them both together, 

plain flowed Uie Jordan, and 50 stadia Thus S. Matthew relates the whole 

(about 7^ miles) w. of it, and 150 history by anticipation ; S. Mark and 

stadia ne. of Jerusalem, stood Jericho. S. Luke fix on the principal figure. 

The neighbourhood was remarkable 4^. iircrC|&o»y a^^ troXXoC. Not 

for its fertility, and was much liked by necessarily from ill-will : Jesus may 

Herod the Great, who built there have been teaching and they unwilling 

several splendid palaces. Hie place to have Him interrupted. 


49 iKpaC&f '^Tlc Ao^ld, i\iri<r6v fic*** Koi crras o *lrj(rovs cTireif 
wirbv ffxmvriOrjvai' Kod ijmvovai top twI>Xov, kiyovrts atlrf , 

50 *'&dp(r€L* lytipaty ifxavei o'C.'* *0 bk diro/3aXcav to iftartoir 

51 ai^ToS dvacrras ^X^€ vpos tov 'If^o-oSi;' kolL dvoKpiOfh Xiyei 
a&r^ 6 *Ii7<rovy, " Tl 0€k€LS 7roti}<ra) coC ; ** *0 5c rv^Xoy elTrev 

52 atJrtp^ *' 'Po^jSovl, iva dra/^Xe^a>.** *0 fie *lT;<roSs cIttci; avr<p, 
***'Tway6' ^ vCoTLS aov o-eo-coice (tc.** Kai eidicas dr€)8\e^€, 
icol iJKoXovdct r<p 'Ir/o-oS jz; r^ ddf * 

XI. KAI 5t€ iyyCCovatv €U ^Upovo-aXfjfi, ^h B7]0<l>ayq Koi 
BriOavCav vpos to Spos t&v *'EXai&v^ dTtofrrkKk^t, bvo r&v 

2 fJLodriToiv ai^TOVg koL Kiyei atJrois, ** 'Y-Traycrc els ttjv Kdfjirjv 
TTJv KaT€vaim vficiv' Koi €v0i(ii>s €lairop€v6iJL€VQL els odTriv 
evprja-fTe irQXov btbcptivov, i(f>* op o^bels dvOpdirayv iceica^tice* 

3 Xva-avTcs ovtov dydy€T€» Kal idv rt; vfilv etTn;, TC voteire 
Tovro; elffare, "Ori o KVpios qiJtoS xpcCcof ix!^i' kou eSOio^s 

4 oCtov dirooreXet code." *ATn]k6ov bk, kcu cSpoi; Tdv voikov 

bib€ll€V0V TFpOS T^V OvpOV Ifo) ivl TOV dpxjiobov, Kol kvOV(riV 

49. (rrdff, part 2 aor. tmffu, walls, the narrow ravine between being 

50. dvoPaX«v vh Ifiydriov, in order the Kidron. About 300 feet higher 
to go more quickly. than the Temple hill, too fleet higher 

XI. I — u. Triumphal entry, than the Upper City or what is usually 

In Matt. xxi. i— 17 ; Luke xix. 29—46; called Mount Zion. 

S. John (xii. 12 — 19.) gives a brief 2. 1^' 8v. The idea of previous 

account of the entry, but does not motion to the animal in order to sit 

relate the expulsion of the traders. uptm it, being implied, M is used with 

I. Bii09aY^ lit. daytA phagay^ accus : the idea of sitting exclusively 

** house of unripe figi^^ a village not would be followed by a gen. or dat 

far from Bethany ; but whether nearer K<Kd6iKC. 3rd sing. perf. of KoJdi^, 

to, or further from, Jerusalem than 3. Kal c«0lo»s J8c Several 

Bethany was, it is impossible to say. important MSS. insert xdXty before 

From the order in which the names cSde, the sense will then be: *'*' Say ye 

are placed here, the latter is inferred. theU the Lard hath need of it, and vnll 

No remains of it exist now. send it b<ick again immediatdy : " of 

Bt|6avCav. Derivation disputed, course in this case there must be no 

Some say, bayth hinay, ** house of stop after ^et. Indeed some editors 

dates: others, dayth aniyaw, "low' punctuate in this way, and understand 

lying spot,^"* It is on the £. side of the the passage as translated above with- 

Mount of Olives, about a mile below out inserting rdXiv. On the other 

the summit : now called El Assariyeh, hand, if we compare ver 6, koX d^^icoy 

"a wild mountain hamlet," of some airroi&iy the ordinary translation seems 

twenty families. the most correct ; for those words then 

th £pot tAv 'EXoiAv, a ridge of correspond to the latter part of ver. 3. 

about a mile long, running along the 4. d|i^8ov. Does not occur again 

whole E. side of the city close to the inN.T. Some translate, ^street;* others. 

ver. 5— H] ^ MARK'S GOSPEL.. S3 

5 avT6v* Kaf nves r&v iicet icrrqKOTOiV IXcyov airois, **T( 

6 wotctre At;oyr€s tov ^rcSAoz; ; " 01 bi etirov avrois KaOm ivcrcC' 

7 XaTo 6 ^Irjaovs' koX axjnJKav avrovs* Kal riyayov top irciXov 
irpis rhv ^Irfo-oSv, Koi ijrifiakop avr^ ra IfuSiTui avroivy kolL 

8 iK6j9i(r€V iir aiircp. IToXAol bk rh IfjAna wir&v farpoiHrap €49 
T^v obov aXkot bi aT0ifi6jbas iKOirrov iK t&v bivbfHov^ koX 

9 i(rrp^wvov €ls t^v 6b6v. Kal ol TTpoiyovrcs km oi iKo\oV' 
6ovvT€S iKpaCov, X4yojrr€s, "^GLaavvi' tvKoyrnxivos 6 ipxofievos 

lo €x; dvopLon KvpCov* Ei\oyrjp,ivri rj ip^opiivri pouriXcCa iv 
6v6pLaTi KvpCov, rov Trarpbs fipxap AafiCb' ^Q^awh iv roi; 

I z vyffCirTotsJ* Kal clarjKOev ek 'le/ooo-JAv/uia 6 'Itjo-oS;, koX €ls t6 
Up6v' Kal TT€pLp\€ylfip.€vos irivra, dyjfCa^ ijbr] oiaiis ttjs &pas, 
i^\6€P els BridavCav pLera t£p hdb^Ka. 

12 Kai 777 iiraipLov i^€\06vT(ap aurcip ivo BriOavCaSf hreCvaire* 

13 Kal lbii>p cruK^v pLaKpodcp, Ixovaop (fniXXa, IjkOcv el Spa €vpri<r€L 
tI ip auTj}* Kol i\6oi}V iir* atJr^v, aibip evp€P el pji <fy6KXa* 

14 01! yhp 7Jp Kaipos truKtAV. Kcu iLTtoKpiBels & If^o-ov; einep avry, 

* crooked lane :^ E. V. * place where two notice the withering for the first time 

Ttftzyj m^;' which seems the least pre- and question (ver. 20 — ^24.) their 

ferable rendering of the three. Master about it. 

8. forpMoxiv. 3rd plur. i aor. 13. oi y^ 4^ Kaip^ (HSkmv. 
Act ffTopiwvfu, (TTOipdSos. The Various attempts have been made to 
best authorities read <rTt/3<ida;, the explain away the obvious meaning of 
more usual and correct form. these words, by those who felt the 

9. 'CUrawd, lit. honvshaa naw, difficulty involved in them. Thus, 
*^save thou we pray: " but afterwards some have placed a note of interroga- 
nsed merely as an acclamation. tion after o^kwp, **Jhr was it not the 

II. Up^Vi is the temple including time of figs ? " others, accenting thus : 

the outer courts and buildings designed oO ykp^ translate, **for where He www, 

for purposes more or less sacred: it was the secuon of figs,'*' Others try 

while voM (I'oiw) is the hcLbitation of to make Kcup6s = favourable season : 

God properly so called, i, e, the Holy **/'/ was not a good season for figs'* 

place itself. None of these attempts will stand. 

12 — 14, and 20 — ^24, also Matt. Thedifficulty is this— our Lord goes up 

xxi, 18 — 22, who relates the whole to Uie tree to look for fruit, finds only 

occurrence at once. S. Mark's account leaves, but curses it, although the lime 

is in chronological order. This was for figs had not yet come : thus ap- 

the Monday in Passion week : in the parently punishing the tree for what 

evening as Jesus and His disciples was not its own fault. The key to the 

returned to Bethany, it may have been, difficulty lies in the premature presence 

as Trench suggests, too dark for the of the leaves ; for m the fig tree the 

disciples to see the effect produced on fruit appears before the leaves (cf. 

the tree : on Tuesday morning they Trench in loc. ) And the whole trans- 

54 ^ MARK'S GOSPEL. [Ch. XI. 

''Mi^ic^t kK (Tov eh rhv al£va iiTjbtU Kafmov ^6yoif* Kal 
15 iJKovov ol im$riTal avrov' Kal tpxovrai th ^le/MxrdXvfxa* koL 
€l(r€XB6iV 6 *lfi<rovs c(9 ro Upov rjp^aro iKpi\k€iv rovs ira>Xovv- 
ras kolL iyopiCovras iv T<p le/xp' kclL tcls rpaviCoks r&v 
KoXXvpiarHv, Kci rbs KoAebpas rHv vdAoCvriAV rhs v€pi,ar€p^ 
i6 Koriarpeylfe' kclI ovk ij<l>i€V tva rU biafiyKp (rxcSof bia tov 

17 Upov* Kai IbCbaoKe, \iy<ov airols, ''Otl y^pairrat, '"Ore 
& oIk6^ IAOV oIkos Trpo(r€V\r}s Kk'qO'rja'fTai iracri vols 
i&v€Okvi* v/yi€t( h\ lisovfia'aT€ wSrov (nrfikoiov XjifrrQv.** 

18 Kal tJkovoov ol ypay^iar^l^ ical ol iLp\i€p€h9 kolL iCrfrow v£9 
avTov iTrokiaovotv' i<l>opovvTO yhp avrov, Brt vas 6 oxkos 
ii€7rXrj(r<r€To iirl TJi Max^ aurov, 

19 Kal 8t€ 6^i iyiveroy i^evopeSero i(<o ttj? iroXeax. Kal 

20 irpdul itapaisopevoy^voi^ €i5oi; ri\v ovkjjv i^pap,pjhniv iK piffiv* 

21 Kal ivaparqadcls i Tlirpos kiyti avr^, ** *Pafi0if 15c, ff ovtaj 

22 ^i' Karr^patTOi i^rjpojnrtu.^* Kai iTroKpiOeU i ^Iriaovs kiy€i 

23 avTots, ""ExcTC irCoTW 0eoS. *Af*^v yhp X4y<i> ipw, Sn hs 
&v rfTTT/ r<p Jp€i TovTfji, "^Ap^T/Ti, fcttl pXrjdrjTi eZs r^v 66Xa<ra'av, 
Koi pri buiKptOfj iv r^ KapbCq oiItov, iXKh iriorevaTi &n & 

24 Xiy^t yiVerai* lorai ai^T<p o ^dp CfcTrjy. A(d rovro Xiyo) ifuv, 
nivra 8(ra iv itpo(TO)\6p,€VOi alTela-de, irtorct/ere on Xo/ui^d- 

25 i;€r€, Kal lorai iJ/iiv. Kal orav on^icTp-e irpoo'evxoixevoL, i^fere 
cl ri Ixere icard rivos* tva kolL & Trarfip i^i&v 6 iv roXs ovpavoTs 

action should be looked on as an 17. voiri toCb lOvfoiv, *^unto, or, 

emblematic rejection and punishing of /or all nations: not of^by, as £. V. 

the Jewish nation, who, by making The quotation is literal from LXX. 

pretensions to a righteousness which cL Isai. IvL 7. 

they had not, putting forth leaves X-^rrS^y rMersxiotthieues. If the 

while there was no fruit, and while the latter had been meant, K\kimt% 

other nations made no such boast, laid would have been used. 

themselves open to the treatment ^^ Kamodow 2nd sine I aor 

received, by this tree at that time, by ,,..'#,,,,, ^V?T ^^ . ^^ J5°' r^J 

themselves some forty years later. For ""^Z^^L W**^' ^^ '"'^- ^'^' 

this symbolizing of the Jewish nation ^^^' k'npo^*^ 

by a fig-tree, cf. the parable of the fig- 23. &f>9f|ri. 2nd siMr. imperat. 

tree planted m the vineyard (Luke I aor. Pass. oTpw. SiOKpi&Q, 3rd sing. 

xiii. 6^ 9). conj. i aor. Mid. dLaxplvu, 

14. 4^Y0i. 3rd sing 2 aor. optat. 24, 25. We must pray without 

the indie* is i^ayw. iff6l<a is used as hesitation (ver. 24) ; or, ill-will 

pres. (ver. 25). 

ver. 26--4.] 5. MARICS GOSPEL. 55 

26 ii^ri iyXv rh irapaiiTcSfiara iS/mSi;. £2 h\ iy^Xs ovk iff^Cere, ovik 
6 varrip vymv & iv rois ovpopoXs i^i^act ra vapairrtiiMiTa vfmvJ* 

27 Kal ipxpvrai irAkiv e2s ^IcfHxrokviia* koL iv r^ Up^ irepi* 
varovvTos aJrov, ipxpvroi vpos avTov ol ip\i€p€is koI ol 

28 ypamiaT^is kcSl ol vpeafivrcpoig koL \iyov<riv aJr^y ** 'Ev iroff 
i^ovaCq ravra voi€ts ; icol rk aoi rriv i^ovcCav rairqv ibmK€V, 

29 Iva ravTa voi^s ; *0 hi 'Ii/crovs iTroKpiOcU €tTr€V avrois^ 
'* 'Eircpoon/cra) ifjMs Kiyi^ iva koyov, ical iTroKpCBTfri pLoi, ical 

30 ipti Vfuv iv TtoCi^ i^ovad^ ravra 'irot&. To BivrKriia 'loaiwov 

31 i^ ovpavov Jjv, fj i^ ivOpdirtav ; iiroKpldriTi pLOL* Kal ^Xoyi- 

32 CovTO vpds iawoifSt Xeyoin-cs, ***Edv €lTrciipL€v, 'Ef ovpavov, 
ip€t, Aiarl €tSv ovk. iviarevaraTe avrtf ; iX\* idv €Itf<»pl€V, 
'E^ ivSpdiroiv,** i<popovvTo tov kaoV &TravT€9 ydp clxov rov 

33 *laidwriVy on SvT<as 'npo<l>rirris Jjv, Kal airoKpidivrcs Xcyovcrt 
r<p 'IfiaoVy '' Ovk. oSa/xcv*" Kal d 'Ii/o-oS; ^'n'OKpidei; Xcyet 
avroi^y '' Ov5^ €yci> Xiyto vpXv iv iroCq i^ovarlq ravra iroto!." 

XIL Kal rjp^aro avrols iv va^afioXals Xiyciv, '' ' AfX7rcXa)i;a 
iifwrcva-cv iLvSptairos, Kal ir€pU0riK€ fffpaypiovt Kal £pv^€v 
vvokrivioVf KoX (^K6b6p,r\a€ wipyov, koI i(iboro avrov yeaapyols, 

2 Koi ^TTcdiffAT/o-e. Kal &7rcoT€tA€ Ttpos rovs ytcapyovs r(p Kaip^ 
bovKov, Iva v€Lpd rcHv y^tapy&v XiPy ivd rod Kapirov tov 

3 iixiF€\£vos* ol bi \afi6vT€9 avrbv Ibctpav, ical iviar^tXap 

4 K€v6v. Kal mkiv ^veoretAe irpos airovs SXkov bovkov* 
KaKtlvov kiOopok'qaavT^s iK€<l>aXaCct>(rav, Kal avcoretAav rjripM" 

26. Many of the best MSS. and might be stationed to protect the crops 

editions omit the whole of this verse. (cf. Trench in loc.) 

27 — 33. Related by Matt xxL IfiSoro or i^idiro, 3rd sing. 2 aor. 

23 — ^27 ; Luke xx. I — 8. Mid. iKdldufu, «^pv{cv, 3rd sing, i aor. 

28. I8«»K€V. 3rd sing. I aor. ind. Act. dpAca-w, ^KOo^|ii|(rf, 3rd sing. 
9l9<afu, I aor. Act. olxoiofUia. 

29. IpA. I sing, fiit indie, of 2. ywpyoiii, the regtilar ecclesias- 
ef/>w whicn is rarely foxmd : y. sub. tical authorities — ^priests and Levites. 
ipQ, 80OX0V, one of God's specialmessengers 

XII. I — 12. Also related by such as the prophets. 
Matt xxL 33 — 44; Luke xx. 9 — 18. &wkrTiiAc 3rd sing. I aor. Act. 

Obviously there is an allusion to IsaL dwoariXXia, 
V. I — 7. 3. IScipav. 3rd plor. i aor. Act 

I. iHlpY^* ^ temporary erection ^p<a, 
of scaffoldixig on whicn a watchman 4. iKi^aXaCMOW, ** wounded in 


5 yivov. Ka2 itaKw iXkov dv{(n-€ik€* KdKfUfov diriKTCfvav* 
Kal vokKobs SXXovSf rovs [jiv bipovres, rov; bk diroKrebHiVTcs* 

6 '^Eti oSv iva vlov ix<^P dyawfirov avrov, dircoTCiXe mH outop 
irpos avTovs iaxarop, Xiyiov, "Ori ivrpaw/javvrai rov vlov fuw. 

7 'Efcewot bi ol y€(opyol etvov itpos iavrcvs, "On oStos cotu* o 
Kkripovofws' b€VT€, dvoKTefviOficv airop, Kal fjiAoip ^orat rj 

8 KXtipovofiXcu Kal kap6pT€s avTov dTriKreivap, koL c^efiaXop 
. 9 1^0) rov dpLir€\tapos» TC ovp 7ron]<r€i 6 Kvpios tov dfnrekiivos ; 

ikvicerai ical dTtoXia-ci rov; yetapyovs, koI biaret top dpureXUpa 

10 iXAot9. OJbi TTjp ypa<l)7jp rairriP dviypcuTe; *AC6op, &p 
diF€boKlp,a(rap ol olKobopLOVPTeSg oSros iyeprjBrf els 

11 K€<l>a\rip y<dpCas. Ilapd KvpCov iyip€T0 avrr), Kal 

12 Icrrt ^avfiao'r^ ip o^^aX/xoi^ rip.&p* Kal e^rovi^ 
aiJroi; KpaTrj<rai, Kal €<l>oprl$ri<rap top Sx.^op' iypm^aav yap 
on irpos avToi^s rrip TfopafioXriP fhre' Kal d<f>ipT€S avTOP, 

13 dinjkOop^ Kal dvoirriXXova'i Trpos airrop rwas t£p ^apiaaloiv 

14 Kal T&p *Hp<abiavoiVf tpa avrop dyp€v<r<a<n Aoycp. Ol be 
€k66pT€S Xiyovaiv avT^, " Aibd<rKaX€f otba^ev on dkrfOris 
e?j Kol oi fieXei aot irepl ovbepos* ov yap pkiircis e!( itpocfuivop 

the head:*' intensive from. K€^\fi, as 9. IXciwnui AXXoit. Luke has 

ya<rTpl^ from yaoHjp, Ar. Equites, exactly the same words. Matthew, 

274, 454 (ed. Dindoif.), so Vulgate, however, puts the words, "Ife will 

^^incapUevtUneraverunt:'' the Syriac miserably destroy those wicked men^ 

versions also have a word meaning &c. into the mouth of the Pharisees 

*waund,^ Since, however, the word themselves, 
is never used elsewhere m any sense 10, n. Quoted from Ps. cxviii. 

but that of 'to reckon,' or 'sum up:' 22, 23. aihii OavuaoT^. Femi- 

others, objecting to this translation nine because literally translated from 

have proposed, "they made short work the Heb. which has no neuter gender. 

of it: or, '*■ they reckoned with him." ,^ 2.-1.- «-j i « 

hsL ^^•^^ ^ ^^ Act:%ai!& ^L^^:^ 

5. TiSt' 8i &irOKT€CvOVT«S. So P^^- ' ^°^- ^^^ dTO«0«/«l^,. 

says Matthew. Luke, however, does ^3—^7- Matt. xxii. 15—22 : Luke 

not mention the killing of any sub- »^ 20—26, are parallel 

ordinate messengers, only that of the 14. &Xi|6^. The difference be- 

Son. tween this word and dXi^^u^s, is that 

. 6. knpo f irfjp ovT ox , 3rd plur. 2nd the former refers to the attributes, God 

^t. Pass, in form but Med. in signifi- is dXi/^s, in that He cannot lie ; 

cation, of iyrpiir<o. while the latter refers to the essence. 

7. ScOtc Adv. perhaps contracted God is 6Xrf0iv6i as opposed to the false 

for beOpo fre. gods of heathenism. 

ver. 15—19.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 57 

ivOpdviav, &XX' iv' iXriOeCas t)ip 6bbv rod 0eo9 ht,bi<rK€is» 
''E^oTi Krjv<rov KaCaapt bovvai tj oi ; b&fi^v, fj firi b&ix€v ; *' 

15 ^O hi €{$6)9 avT&v T7JV vTtdKpKriv ^lirof avToTs, *' Tf fxe W€tp<t- 

16 C^r€ ; <f>ip€Ti fioi brivdpiov, tva ido)." Ol ti ijveyKav. Kal 
kiy€i avTols, " TCvos fj cIkohv oStyi koX ff lTnypa<l>rj ; " 01 6i 

17 ftirov avT^, " KaCaapos.** Kal iiroKpiO^h 6 *Irjaov9 ^lirev 
avTois, '''ATTodore rh KaCcapos KaCcapi, kclL ra tov &€Ov t^ 
0e^*" Kal i$a6fia(rav iv avT(p. 

18 Kal ipxovTot ^abbovKoCoi vpis avrbVf oiTUf€S Xiyovaiv 

19 ivicrraatv ixrj thai' Kal lirripdrria-aif airrbv, kiyovT€Sy " Aid6xr' 
KoXe, Miacrijs iypay^€V ffpLiv, Sri idv twos ib€\<t>hs iiroOiirri, 

ts^jpfc^9f ihe lAtin census. 8A|&cv, which kept them most widely separated 

1st plur. 2 aor. subjunctive dldafu, the from the Pharisees was their disbelief 

deliberative subjunctive. in the oral tradition. To this may be 

15. 8t|vdi>iov, the Latin denarius, traced their other characteristic tenets ; 

worth about oj^d of our money. their doubt about (usually represented 

cl8d&s, part. perf. of o78a v. sub. as a flat denial of a future state), and 

€t9(a. t^, I sing. 2 aor. conj. etSa. their rejection ofthe orders and systems 

18 — 27. In Matt xxii. 23 — 33 ; of angels, the growth of later times. 

Luke XX. 27 — ^40. This seems to be all that Acts xxiii. 8. 

18. Sadducees. The only men- requires : or that verse may denote a 
tion of them in this Gospel. A small state of opinion similar to that prevail- 
but wealthy and powerml sect. The ingnowin England : in which the exist- 
etymology of the name is doubtful, ence of angels and their influence in 
Usually referred to Zadok (disciple of Scripture is not denied, while the idea 
Antigonus of Socho, a famous scribe of any communication between them 
who succeeded the men of the Great and mankind now, finds very little 
Svnagogue), who from a perversion of favour. It has often been asserted that 
his master's precepts spread the opinion the Sadducees received only the Penta- 
that there was no future state of rewards teuch as canonical, an assertion with- 
and pimishments. An examination of out foundation, and arising from a 
the recorded words of Antigonus confusion between them and the 
hardly seems to warrant this opinion. Samaritans. It should be borne in 
Unsatis&ctory attempts have also been mind that the sect broke up entirely 
made to connect the name with Tsedek, at the destruction of Jerusalem, and 
righteousness. It has been conjectured that no writing of any Sadducee now 
tlmt Sadducees or Zadokites were the remains. If there were any documents 
descendants of a class originally sprung from which to judge of their opinions, 
from the famous Zadok of David's the^ might be found not so widely 
time. This would help to explain the different from those of their adversaries 
connexion constantly existing between the Pharisees, (who in this case have 
the sacerdotal caste and the Sadducees. all the pleading to themselves) as is 
In support of this it may be mentioned usually supposed. Cf. Smith's Diet, of 
that ^^ sons of Zadok'"* is an expression Bib. sub verbo, to which Article I am 
fotmd several times in the book of indebted for the substance of these 
Ezekiel and in the Chronicles. That remarks. 



leol fcaroXdriy yiwauca, ical rkxpa ixii itf)^, tva XiPji 6 iSeX^os 
ccvroO ri^y yvifatka avrov, kclL i^avaarriiTji fmipyua r^ MeX^<p 

20 a^ov* iirr^ idcX<^2 ^<raif* ica2 6 Tr/Miros iXa/Sc yvi^ouiicaj ical 

21 iiroOvi/ia'Kmv cix iL<pfJK€ avipiia' Koi 6 heArtpos (Kafiev avrriv, 

22 Kol imi&avtf Koi ciXk mnht iil>fiK€ tmipiior koL i rpCros 
i<ra6T<os* KoX ikapov avrriv ol hrra, koI ovk aifnJKav (nripixa, 

23 'Eox^^''^ vivTOiV ivi0av€ koI fj yvvifi' *Ev r^ oSv ivcurrifrei, 
Srav iafa<n£<n, rCvos airr&v itrrai yw/i; ol yip ktrrh i(r\ov 

24 airn\v ywaiKaJ* Kal iTroKpidtU 6 'Iri<rovs cTircv avroi^, " Ou 
bui TovTo v\avacr0€f fiil flbSrts rhs ypa^s, lAtihe t^ip hivoiuv 

25 rot; 0cat}; Sra» yhp €ie v€KpQv ivaar£<rtv, ojJre yaficvauf, 
oiire yapXvKovTOi, iX)C eltrXv fi»s 2yyeXoi ol iv rots ovpavoTs. 

26 Hcpl bi t£v V€Kp&Vf irk eyeCpovraif ovk iviyvtor^ iv r^ pip\(ff 
Moxr^ox, iirl lijs fiirov, m cTttci^ avT<^ 6 Qehi, kiytov, "Eyoi 6 
Oc^; *APpaaiJL, Kal 6 ®€hs ^laracLK, Kal 6 &€hs 'laKcijS; ' 

27 Ovk ecmv 6 &€bs V€KpQv, iXXh 0€^s C^vrfov vfieTs ovv ttoKv 

28 Kal vpoaeXSi^p cts roij; ypaixpLaricov, iKoAaas avr&v 
<rvCriToi6vT(av, cZdos 8n koXw airots iLV€KpC&ri, iinipJiTriatv 

29 airrhvy *' Ilofa i(nl irp<iTri itac&v foroXiJ;" *0 Vk 'IiytroSs 
iTF€KpC6ri ovT^, ""On itpiiTri iraaSv r&v iirroXm, *'AKove, 

30 ^la-parjk* Kt^pio; 6 ®€bs fffioiv KHpios et; iarTi Kal 
iyaitriireis KHpiov t6v &€6v arov i( SXi;; TrJ9 KapbCa^ 
aov Kal if 5X179 r^9 i^^XV^ <^ov, Kal i( 5X175 rijs 6ta- 

31 vo^as <rov, Kal i( okris rrfs laxiios trov! ASn; mpta-n} 
ivTok'q* KaX hevripa opjola airri, ''Ayav^creis rbv itkria-lov 

19. iM, 3rd sing. 2 aor. conj. case viprtop must be closely connected 

d^rifu, Mttofjt tYpoifW 4|itir. In with Tp<lmf, so as to .almost form a 

Deut XXV. 5. sq. compound word, ^first-of-all:' * Which 

26. 4irl Tfy« pdTOv, f/f ^ the bushy commandment is of the first importance*' 

i. e. in the church lesson so called. 29. "Akouc 'lo-pa^ k. t. X. lit 

cf. Rom. xi. 2. ^i» 'HX^^. This quo- from LXX. Deut. vL 4. This passage 

tation is from Exodus iii. 6. is called by the Jews the Shema, from 

28 — 34. In Matt. xxii. 34 — ^40. the word with which it opens, sfCma^ 

28. itwrQnf» Instead of this, * hear thou,' 

almost all good MSS. read, and cri- 31. A^yair^jowt, k. r. X. literally 

tical editors adopt rdirwi^. In this from LXX. of Lev. xix. 18. 

ver. 32-43.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 59 

32 o-ov »9 aeavTov*. M€CCoiv tojUto^p &KXri hrrokii ovk i<mJ* 

cTira;, on ct^ ^ort 0€o;^ koI ovk ^otu/ 2AXo9 irX^v avroS. 

33 Kal ro iyavqv avrbv ii oXri9 rfj$ KopbCas, Koi ii okris Trjs 

<njvi<r€a>s, Koi i( 0X779 rrjs V^x$^» '^^ ^i ^^^^ ^^ !oX^^^» '^^ ^^ 
iyair^v rbv irXrja-Cov &9 tcanov, itkeUv Itm irdtrroip r&v oko^ 

34 fcavTa>/juira>2; koI t&v ^o-kSv," Kal d 'It/o-oS; Vbi^v avrov^ on 
I'ovi^ex^Ss iit€Kpidri, ciirei' avrcp, ^' Ov iMucpcof e? &ir^ r$9 )3ao-(- 
Xem Tov 0€oi;." Kai ovdcb otSx^rt Mk/ia avrbv ^ir€pa)T^<rai. 

35 KcU dvoKpiOfU o *lri<rovs ikeyc^ bibdtrKOiV hf r<p Up^, 
** 11(09 kiyovfriv ol ypofiixarclSf on 6 Xpioro; vUs l<m AafiCb ; 

36 avro9 yhp Aaplb ctircv Iv rf IIi'ct/fAari r^ ^Ayfip, 'Etirev 
d Kt{p&09 r^ Kvpl(^ fioVf Kidov iic dcficSv |uiov> Ja>9 cti^ 
^(3 rov9 ixOpo-is aov vvovobiov t£v 7rob£v aov.* 

37 Avro9 oiv Aaptb kiy^i avrov xipiov* koX ir6$€v vlos avrov 

38 iari ; " Kal 6 Trokifs Sxkos "qKovcv oiItov ^bi(as» Kal (k^yev 
avTols iv Tfj biba)(fj airov, ^*BkiTrer€ dm rw ypafipLarioip, 
T&v 0€k6vT(i>v iv oTokals vepiTrarelv, Kal dairaafiov^ iv rai? 

39 dyopalsy koX irptoTOKoffebpCas iv rais (rwayctiyaTif koL itpoaro' 

40 icXi(r£a9 iv roXs bflirvois' ol KaT€a'6CovT€s rhs oUCas t£v yjlp&Vy 
K€X Trpo<f>i<r€i fMiKph 'Rpo(r€V)^6p,€voi: otJrot krp^ovrax *R€pi<t<t6' 
T€pov KpCiia,** 

41 Kal KoBUras 6 ^Iriaovs Kdrivavn tov yaCo<l>vkaKCov i&€iip€k 

42 Ts&s o Sykoi pdk\€i x,akKov els to yaCo<l)vkiKiov* Kal woXXol 
vkauarioi Ifiakkov vokkd' Kal ikdovca i^Ca XVP^ mratxi ^fioX^ 

32. tSn, ' thaty not ^for^ as K V. is a report in externa of that of which 
" 7%ou saidst truly that there is one these verses are the substance. 
6^" 40. X^ovnu. 3rd plur. fut. 

3S— 37. In Matt, xxii. 41—46 ; Xom^<£w. ^. . .^ ^ . , 
Luke XX. 41—44. 41—44- This incident is also re- 

Sl^L^- P- ex.! quoted HteraUy ^^^J^^^^t^l 

' , . however, consider that some chests are 

M. I sing. 2 aor. conj. Act referred to which stood in the court of 

rlBiifu, the women, and were receptacles of 

38 — 40. Related by Luke xx. tribute, or contributions for the templft 

45 — ^47. The whole of Matt, xxiii. Against this, notice that t6 is singular. 


43 \eirra dvo, o ^ori Kohpavrris* Koi vpo<rfca\€(r(i|ui€V09 rovs 
liaOffTas avTov, kiyei aurots, "'Afx^y A^co vfttv, on iy x^P^ 
aUrri ff VToaxri irXfiov vivTcav fiifikriKc rciv paXSirroiv €ls to 

44 yaCoKpvkdiKiov. TIAptcs yap iK rov TrepuraeiovTos ovtols 
ipakov aSrri hi iK T7J9 v(rr€prj<r€(jt)s aJrrjs irdvra o<ra ftx^v 
lpak€v, oKov Tov pCov aur^s." 

XIII. Kal iKTTopevoiiivov avroS iK rov Upov, \iy€L avr<^ ctsr 
reSi; pLadTjTciv aJrov, *' Abbda-Koke, lb€, irorairol XlOoi koI 

2 TroTaTTol olKobofiaC* Kat 6 ^Irjcovs aTioKpiOch €tv€v avr^, 
** BX^7r6t9 rairas ras p.€yaKas olKobofids ; ov p,7f dtpedfj \C$os 

3 ^Tri \C$<iig ts ov ixfj KaTa\v&fi** Koi KaOrip,hfov airov efe to 
8po9 TOiv *'E\at(2v Karivcam rov Upov, iirripi&Taiv avrbv icar 

4 liCca; Uirpos koL 'UkodPos koL 'looajon^s Koi 'Avbpias, " Elvk 
fjiuv, ttStc ravTa lorai ; Koi rl to otjixclov orav ixiXXri irdma 

5 ravTa avvT€k€la'6aL ;** 'O bi 'Ir;<ro5s diroKpidels avTOis rjp^aro 

6 Kiy€i,v, " BA^Trerc fx^ rts vpJoLs Tr\avria7i» IIoAAol yap ^Acuo-ov- 
rat iirl T<a dvopLorC pLOV, kiyovT€S, *'0n iyd etfii* koX iroXXoifs 

42. Xcirrd h'&o 6 4<rri Ko8pdvTTis= chapter several remarks of Alford on 

the Latin quadrans one fouith of the Matt. xxiv. and some passages of 

as. Hence, a Xcirr^v was one-eighth Josephus, quoted for the most part by 

of the aSf since two of them made up him ; which serve to illustrate the 

a quadrans. several predictions. 

44. ctxfv. 3rd sing, imperf. of 2. &^c6g. 3rd sing, i aor. conj. 

%X^. Pass. dipLrifu. 

XIII. The predictions in this 6. iroXXol IXciKrovrtu kirX i%f 
chapter are related in Matt xxiv ; 6v6^tC (lov. Some bring forward 
Luke xxi. $—36. In S. Matthew the Theudas, cf. Acts v. 30 ; Simon 
twenty-fifth chapter is a continuation Magus, Actsviii. 9. sq. ; and Barcochba 
of the preceding discourse, consisting an impostor who arose in Hadrian's 
of Uie parables of the ten virgins, and reign ; as fulfilling this prophecy. If 
the talents ; followed by a description these be rejected as too early or too 
of the Last Judgment The first part late, Josephus Antiq. Bk. xx. chap, 
of this chapter predicts the troubles to viii. sec. 5, tells us that during the 
be endured at the destruction of Jem- reign of Nero, " Matters in Judaea 
salem, and at the final dispersion in " kept constantly growing worse. For 
the reign of Hadrian (a. D. 135) : the "the country was again filled with 
latter part clearly refers to the " robbers and impostors, who deceived 
scenes of the Last Day, but the two '* the multitude, ' and in section 6. 
events are so closely connected that it ** Now the impostors and deceivers 
is difficult to point out to which any ** persuaded the multitude to follow 
particular verse refers. Perhaps we " them into the wilderness. For they 
may safely say that ver. 24 — 27 refer " said that they would show manifest 
exclusively to the second Advent I "signs and wonders wrought accord- 
have adduced in the course of this " ing to the providence of God." 

ver. 7—11.1 S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 6 1 

7 'Rkxar!\iTQ(\)vw. "Orav hi aKovorrjrc iroKiiwvs koL aKoas TtoXifixov, 

8 ixfj 6po€L(T0€* h€L yap yeviadaL* dX)C oStto) to riKos' 'Eyep- 
0rj(r€Tai yap iOvos iirl iOvos, Kal fiaaikcCa iirl PatrtXeCav' Kal 
itrovraL areta-iioi Kara tSvovs, koI Icroirrai Xifxol Kal rapaxai* 

9 *Apxal &bCv(ov ravTo, BX^^ere d^ v/i€i9 kavTovs. Tlapahd^ 
(Tovo-i ydp vfjLOLs els awibpiay Kal els (rwaytayas baprja-ea-de^ 
Kal iirl ffyeiidvcav Kal PactXicav araOi^a'ea'Oe (v€K€p ifioVy els 

10 fiapTvpiov avrols' /col els irdvra ra iOvr\ dec itp&rov KrjpvxOfjvai 

11 TO eiayyikiov. *'OTav bi dydy(jt)(rw vpJas irapabtbovres, iifj 

7. voX^funis Kal &Kods iroX^i&ttv. decent behaviour of a Roman soldier, 
Alford mentions three threats of war Jos. Antiq. xx. 5. 3. In this about 
against the Jews — by Caligula, 20,000 persons were killed among the 
Claudius, and Nero : and in reference narrow streets. 

to the first, quotes Jos. Antiq. xix. i, 2. fycpd/jo-erat. 3rd sing, i fiit. Pass. 

" Whence, mdeed, his death had a iyelpu. 

*' great and happy influence on the 9. *ApxaV &Bivw raOro. ** TTiese 

" customs and security of all men ; things are the beginnings of the birth- 

" and in the case of our nation, there pangs:'' sc. of that new polity the 

*' was not even a slight chance of its Christian dispensation. iropoS^M-ovoi. 

' ' not being destroyed, had not a speedy els o^fvcSpia, as S. Peter and 

" death come upon him." iroAC|u»s S. John were (Acts iv. 7. sq.). els 

differs from fJuAxti exactly as our war 4ruva*y«»7ds Sap^trcirdc, literally, *^ ye 

differs from battle: the former is the shall be taken to synagogues and beaten 

state of hostility, the latter the conflict there^' as E.V. adopting the punctua- 

which is the result of that condition. tion of the best editions, a comma 

8. fycpd/jo-cTcu Y^ Idvos M Idvos. before iccU and after Safnfia-effde. Some, 
There were serious disturbances — (i) however, put a comma or colon im- 
at Alexandria (a. d. 38. ) which gave mediately after <rvvay<ayd5f in that case 
rise to the deposition of Flaccus ; (2) the translation will be, *' Por they shall 
at Seleucia about the same time in deliver you up to councils and to syna- 
which more than 50,000 Jews were gogues: ye shall be beaten^ and shall 
killed; (3) at Jamnia a city on the stand before governors and kings^ &c." 
coast of Judaea near Joppa. oifur)fcoC Sofy^ctHBc. S. Paul says (2 Cor. 
At Crete, a. d. 46 or 47; at Rome, xi 24.) ^^ Of the Jews five times received 
A. D. 51, on the day when Nero I forty stripes save one, 8af»tf|o-c(r6c, 
assumed the toga virilis ; at Apamsea 2 fiit. pass. 2nd plur. h4pia, M ^^^e- 
in Phrygia, A. D. 53 ; at Laodicsea, ii^vo>v oro^orcoTC, S. Paul stood 
A. D. 60, &C. (Alfoid). Xi|M>C, cf. Acts before the Duumviri at Philippi, Acts 
xi. 28. Jos. Wars, Bk. v. Ch. x. has xvi. 20 ; the politarchs at Thessalonica, 
a horrible description of the distress ib. xvii. 6. ; Gallio at Corinth, ib. 
occasioned by want of food during the xviii. 12 ; Felix and Festus at Caesarea 
siege. Houses were broken into and ib. xxiv. i ; xxv. 7. Kal pacriX^cAV. 
their inmates tortured to make them S. Paul also stood before Agrippa II, 
tell where they had concealed a few Acts xxvi. i. and probably bdfore Nero 
handfuls of meal. though we are not told so. 

rapaxaC A terrible one broke 1 1. The behaviour of S. Peter as 

out, A. D. 45, at Jerusalem during the described Acts iv. 8. and 13, agrees 
Passover, in consequence of the in- with this injunction. 


irpofi€piiivaT€ t( XaXi{(n}rc, iiriSi fAeXerare* dXX* o ioiv bo0§ 

vfuv iv €K€Cvri rf <Spf , tovto XoXcIrc' ov yap i<rr€ vfjicts ol 

X2 AoXoSia-e;, fliAXa to Ilvcvfia to "Ayiov, Ilapab£<r€i Sk 

db€k<l>6s dbeXxffov €ls Bdvarov, koX varfjp riicpov* kolL iiravcur- 

13 Trja-ovToi, rkKva M yovcU, Koi Btwar^aovaiv avrovs* ical 
i<r€<rd€ pLuroviuvoi vito irdvTa>v bid to Spopid pjov* 6 hi viro^ 
pLfCvas ds rikoSf oStos <ra>di;a-crai« 

14 "Otov hi lbriT€ to pbiKvypxi ttjs iprjpLfia'€<as, to priOh^ 
viro AavifjX tov 7Fpo<l>rJTov, iirros oirov ov M* (o dvayiv^<TKOiV 

15 vocfrto') t6t€ ol iv T^ *\ovhalq tpcvyiTOiaap eJs ra opri* 6 bi 
iirl TOV b^pMTOs p,rj KarapiTto ets ttjp oUCai;, p,ribi €l(r€XBiT(a 

12. Josephus (Wars vi. 3,4.) tells 14. t^ p8^uY)M& Tf^s lf>i)|M(oiftts. 
how durmg the siege of Jerusalem, a Undoubtedly alludes to Dan. ix. 27. 
woman of good family named Mary, The clause which follows, rh pfrfiiv 
having had all her food and property iirb Aavi^ roO irpo<|>^v, is rejected 
carried off by the bemditti, and being by some editors as interpolated from 
in the sorest straits through famine. Matt. xxiv. 15 : as to the meaning of 
roasted her infant son, ate one half t^ pSi\. rifi Ip. there has been con- 
herself and offered the other to the siderable doubt Many have supposed 
banditti when they came. " Where- that the Roman standards are referred 

"upon they went out trembling to, which were an abomination because 

" and all the city was straightway filled they were worshipped by the soldiers. 

"with horror Now the desire of These, they say, stood where they 

" (hose suffering from the famine was ought not when Jerusalem was sur- 

" for death : and it was a happy thing rounded, first by Cestius Gallus, then 

" for those already dead that they died by Vespasian, and lastly by Titus ; 

" too soon to see or hear of such and compare Luke xxi. 20. To this 

** miseries." explanation Alford objects — ^that those 

Shortly before the war with the very eagles had been on holy ground for 

Romans broke out, one Simon a Jew, many years, and were there when these 

who had turned traitor, being caught words were uttered. Also, that in 

together with his whole family, by the Matt xxiv. 15. for 6irov 06 dei we have 

inhabitantsofScythopolis, put to death iv r&r<fi ayltp, which confines the 

with his own hands his aged parents, abomination to the temple itself, 

his wife, and aU his children ; finally, Alford suggests that the occurrence 

standing upon their bodies so as to be meant, which must have been some 

seen by all, he plunged the sword into definite event, as flight from it was to 

his own throat up to the hilt. Jos. be immediate, may have been some 

Bell. Jud. II. 18. 4. internal desecration of the holy place 

13. |iioio^iMvob fir^ irdvTwv. by the faction of the zealots, possibly 
Compare the deadly hatred borne to the appointing in mockery one Phan- 
Paul and his work by the Judaizers nias, an ignorant countryman, to be high- 
(Alford). priest Jos. B. J. iv. 3. 8. This dese- 

6 si iiro|u{va«, k. r. X. The cration may have coincided with the ap- 

Christians seem to have left Jerusalem proach of Cestius prophesied of in Luke, 
before the siege, and gone to Pella 4<rr^, accus. neu^. sing. part, pf^ 

where they were unmolested. of ta-ri7/u, contracted from iffrriK^ 

vcr. 16-22,] S. MARK'S GOSPEL, 63 

16 ipal n €#c 1^9 o2fc^a9 wSrov* kcX th rov dypov &v /uii/ iitw^ 

17 rpe^arco €{9 ra iitUna^ ipai to IfjAriop avTov^ Oval bk tols 
iv ya<np\ ^ot/crat; koL raXs BfiKaCovo'ais Iv IkcCvms tois, 

18 fjixipaii. Ylpoaevxi^aOe bi &a firj yhnfrai fj <l>vyfi v\mv 

19 \€iiijS»vo9* "Kcrojnat ydp al fiyApai. iK€ivai $\C\lfis, ota ov 
yiyov€ Totavrri &ir' ipxv^ KrCtreois fjs itvn^ev 6 ®€os, i<os rod 

20 vvp, Koi ov firj yivrirai. Ka\ tl iifj Kvpios lKo\6p(Aa'€ ra9 
rjfiipas, ovK &v iaiOri iraa-a trap^* iXKa 8&a rov9 ^KXeicrovs o^s 

21 i$€\iiaTO, ^Ko\J/3a><r6 rd9 fjfjiipas' Kal rore idv n9 vfWf 
ehrji, *lbod, cSSe o X/>toT09, 17 i^ov, i/cei, pt^ vioT€v<rqT€. 

22 'Eyep^o-orrai yap ^€vdJx/>t<nroi Kal \lt€vbovpo<l)7JTai, Kal 
bdarorxri 077/uieia Ka2 ripara^ irpos to iiroTrKav^v^ e! dvi/aroi', 

23 ical rov9 Ik\€ktov9. *Tfi€i9 di )3X^7r€T€* i5ov, vpocCpriKa vniv 

15. ctpeu. I aor. Act. infin. afpo;. 20. lKoXdp«»ori. Various causes 

16. & els rhv iiyphv cSv, '* ^ w/^ are enumerated by Alford as contribu- 
Aw ^»^ into the fidd and is there^^' ting to produce this J/4^?^<!!«j«p; Agrippa 
cf. ver. 9, supra, tU tr, dafyfjaeffOe, had begun strengthening the walls of 

19. tkrovTcu Y^p OXCi^is, **For Jerusalem in a way which, if completed, 

those days shall be tribulation}'* There would have rendered them superior to 

is no need to put in before those days any human effort ; but Y^as stopped by 

as £. V. The following description an order from Claudius. The Jews 

from Josephus, B. J. v. I. 5. amply themselves were split up into factions, 

justifies these words. '* Now the city and had neglected to make any pre- 

** being attacked from evenr quarter by parations for the siege. The stores of 

** the plotters and low fellows, the provision had been burnt shortly before 

"people between them were Uke a the arrival of Titus. 

'* great body pulled in different direc- o^k &v l(r<&Oi) iracra cdf^' As by 

'* tions. Old men and women from divine interposition the utter extinction 

** inability to meet the evils within, of the Jewish race was prevented then, 

" prayed to the Romans, and anxiously so at the end of the world the com- 

" expected the foreign war for the plete triumph of evil over good will 

" sake of freedom from the domestic be prevented. 

" calamity. The better sort were in ItA^ro. 3rd sing. I aor. Med. 

** terrible fear and perplexity, and ^icX^w. 

''had neither opportunity for counsel 22. fycpO^jcrovTcu Y^4'^^XP*'<'^^b 

'' with a view to changing their plans, koI i|rfv8oirpo^f^i, on this compare 

** nor hope of coming to terms, nor the note on ver. 6. The difference 

** of flight for those who wished to between <br/x/x<rToj and 4'Cv8^xp*^'^ros 

** flee. For every point was guarded, is, that the former refers to the open, 

'^ and men at issue on other matters the latter to the hidden and subtle 

" only agreed in murdering those opposition to Christ." The former will 

** deserving safety. And the noise of resist and fight against Christ and His 

** the combatants was incessant by day work : the latter will pretend to assume 

** and night ; but still more terrible the attributes of Christ, and give him- 

** were the wailings of the mourners." self out to be the Messiah. 


24 TOvra. *AW' ^1^ iKcCvais rais ^/x^pats, fjiera r^if BkC^iv 
iKfCmiv, 6 i7\t09 (rxorio-dTfo-crai, kol ^ o-eXifi^ ov d(ii(r6i to 

25 <l>iyyos avTrjs, kclL ol iaripes tov ovpavov ia-ovraL iKvlTrrovres, 

26 fcat al hvvdix€Ls al iv rois ovpavols a-ak€V$7J(rovTai' Kal t6t€ 
Qy^ovTOk TOV vlov TOV ivOpdvov ip\6ix€Vov iv V€<l>i\ais pi€Td 

27 bvvdpL€(a9 irokKrjs Kal bo^s* Kal rore dTrooreAei tovs ayyi- 
Xov9 avTov, KoL Imavvd^cL tovs iicKeKToifs avTov €k rmv 
Tca'ardpoiV dviiMnv, dv iKpov yfjs fa>s ixpov ovpavoS. 

28 "'Airo h\ T^5 (TVKris pjdOa'€ r^y 'jrapapoXrjv oTav avrrjs 
rjbri 6 Kkdbos airaXos yivriraiy koX iKipv^ ra <l>vk\a, yt,v<ia'K€T€ 

29 on iyyvs to Oipos iarCv oSro) koI vfxtlsy otov ravTa Ibrjre 

30 yw6fi€va, yiv<a(TK€T€ on iyyvs i<mv iirl Ovpats. *ApLrjv kiyca 
VfiiVf oTi ov /i^ irapikOri fi yfved aSTrj, ikiyjas oS mvra raSra 

31 yivriTai, 'O ovpavbs koX rj yrj 'napik^wovrac ol b'k koyoi /txov 

32 ov pLTj irapikOaxru " ITcpi bi Trjs '^p.ipas €K€Cvris Kal 7^9 &pas, 
ovb€h otb€V, ovbi ol iyyekoi ol iv ovpavia, ovbi 6 vlos, ei [i^ o 

33 itarrip, " BXcTrere, dypvirveiTC Kal Trpoa-evx^trO^' ovk otSare 

34 yd,p Tt6T€ 6 Kaipos iarw. ^Hs ivOpoiTros dirobrnxos d<l>€ls Trjv 
oIkCov auTov, Kal boifs toIs bovkois ovtov tt^v i^ovaCav, Kal 
iKd(TT<a TO ipyov aJrov, koL t^ Ovpoap^ ivcTcCkaTo tva yprjyopfi. 

35 Tpriyop€iT€ oiSv ovk olbaT€ yap wore 6 Kvpios Trjs oUlas 

36 ipx^Taiy 6\lfi, fj p.€(rowKTCov, rj dk€KTOpo<l>o}vCas, fj Trpoat pirj 

37 ikOiav i^aC<t>vris evpri vfms KaOevbovTas. ^A dc vfilv kiyo), 
iratTi kiy(o, rp/yyopcrre." 

XIV. *Hy d^ TO vdaxa koI ra &Cvp,a /xerA bvo rjiiipas' Kal 
iCiTovv ol apxtepci; Kal ol ypafifiaTfls, Tr£s avTov iv b6k<^ 

2 KpaTri(TavT€S dTTOKTeCvcaa-LV Ikcyov bi, "Mfj iv 17} ^opT§, 

3 iirj'jroT€ dopvfios larai tov Xoofi." Kal Svtos avrov iv BrjdavCq, 

25. at 8tivd|Ji€i$, the influences of later than the passing away of this 

the heavens, the elements, called in material system. The word is found 

2 Peter iii. 10. <rroi%6ta. in the LXX. more than once in this 

30. i\ ytvcd ajfni, this race : that sense, cf. Num. xiii. 29. icat t^p yevtikP^ 

the word is to be understood here in *B»'Ax icapdKaficv iKcT. 

this sense, and not in the more usual XIV. i, 2. Matt xxvi. I — S ; 

one of generation, may be inferred from Luke xxii. i, 2. are parallel, 

the fact that the passing away of it is 3 — 9. This meal in the house of 

made of more importance, and placed Simon the Leper is related by Matt 

ver. 3—13.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 65 

iv T^ olKif^ '2iyMV0i Tov XejTpov, KaroKeiiilvov cAtov, 7/A0€ ywrf 
Ixovcra dXipaarpov fiipov vipbov mariKij^ iroKvTcKovs' Koi 
<rvvTpCylfa(ra Th iXipaarpov, Karix€€V avrov Korh ttjs K€<t>aX7Jv 

4 i}aav hi Ti,v€S iyai;aKTovvT€S vphs iavroif^, Kal \iyovT€Sf " Kls 

5 tC ff iirdKcta avrr) rod fxvpov yiyovev; ffbvvaro yhp tovto 
trpaOrjvai ivijW) TptaKoa-Coav brivapCcav, Kot bodTjvai roTs irro)- 

6 X0&'" Kcii iv^Ppumvro airy. 'O bi 'I?;<rovs et^ei/, *^''A(t>€T€ 
cArrjv tC avTg kottovs itap^x.^re ; koXov tpyov €lpYi(TaTo els 

7 ifii, IlivTOT€ ybp roifs irTai\ovs Ix!^^ M^^ lavrcioi;, Kal Srav 
6i\rjT€, bvva<r$€ avTois etJ iroirjo'ac ifxi bi ov itavrore ^X^*"** 

8 ^O €t\€V aSrq, iirolrjo'C' irpoikafie nvpCaai yuov rh a-Qfia els rbv 

9 ivraipiaafiov. ^Aixijv \iya> ipxify ovov ip KJipvx/^ rh evay- 
yiXiov TOVTO els okov t6v K6(TfjLov, Kal b iTToCrjcev avrq, 

10 XaKrjOrjaeTai els ixvrjyLoavvov avTrjs.** Kal 6 ^lovbas 6 'lo-ica- 
piirrjSf els t£v bdbeKa, intriXOe irpos tovs ipxiepels, Iva 

11 vapab^ avTov avTols. 01 bi ixovcavTes ixO'Plcav, fcal 
imiyyeCKavTO aiJrcp ipyvptov bovvai' kolL i^^rei ttojs evKa(p<as 
avTov irapaJb^. 

xxvL 6 — 13. (Luke omits it) and by aad by consequence, the meaning of 

John xii. i — 8. who places it six days iritrTiic^f have been much questioned, 

before the Passover, and before the The word is only found in the N. T. 

triumphal entry into Jerusalem. S. here and John xiL 3. Some connect 

Matthew and S. Mark do not par- it with irlffm faith, and render 

ticularly specify the time, though at ^uine, unadulterated: others derive 

first sight one would infer that it was it from irlvta^ rendering it by, such as 

two days before the Passover. Pro- may be drunk, hence, clear^ liquid, 

bably, however, S. John has preserved Another method has been to derive it 

the true chronology for us ; his arrange- from Pista, a city in Cabul, whence 

ment is adopted by Wieseler {Chron, came many kinds of unguents ; against 

Synopsis^ Sect. v. chap. iL p. 358. this may be urged the form, which 

Venables' translation) who places mis would in that case be Tccrraios. 

event on Saturday, 9th of Nisan. 4. fjtrav 8^ rtvcs. S. Matthew 

3. 2£|u»vos ToO XeirpoO. Pro- says ol /ia^i^ro/. S.John, ^* one of his 

bably he was not so now, but had been disciples^ Jtidas Iscariot,'^ 

mirsunilously cured by Jesus : others ^fyovcv. 3rd sing. 2 perf. ylyvofieu, 

think, that he was the father of the 5. irpoO^jvai. i aor. Pass, infin. 

family at Bethany, and had been dead WLTrpdaKta is used as the present 

for some time, since the sisters take so 6. clfrydo-aro. 3rd sing, i aor. 

promiment a part, cf. Smith's Diet Bib. Med. ipydj;ofMi. 

Zazarus and Mary Mag'dalene. ywi^ 10, ii. The plot. In Matt 

we learn from S. John's account that xxvL 14^16 ; Luke xxii. 3 — 6. 

she was Mary the sister of Lazarus. 11. ixApir\auv. 3rd plur. 2 aor. 

vdp8ov iriOTiKi^. The derivation, xafpo;. 


12 Ka2 rp ir/Niirif iiiUpn t£p dCviKov, ot€ to vda\a (Bvov, 
Xiyovaiv airi^ ol tioBriTal avrov, '' Ilot; 6iK€is ivckOoPTCS iroL- 

13 im<ra>iuv tva ^7179 ro ird<r)(a ; " Kal dirooT^AAci dvo r(Sp /la^- 
t£v wStqVj kcX Xiyei avrot9, "*Tiray€T€ cb T17V woXty ical 

14 aTrairrri(r€i vfiiv iv6p(ovos Kcpdiuov i^aros Paaraduav' (zkoXov- 
^<rar€ avr^, koX ottov iav ^UriXOri, chraTf r<^ olKobeoTTOTri, 
*'Oti 6 bibda-KoXoi A.eyei, Hov cori ro Kardkvixa, ottov to iraoxa 

15 ii€Td t£v iML0rjT£v juov ^ya> ; fcoi avTos viuif de^ei dvdytov 

16 juicya i(TT(KAikivov eroifioi;* ^kc? Iroi/iaa-arc ^fxtv." Kcu i^kOov 
ol yLoBriTaL avTov, kwL riXOov els Trjv v6\a^, kolL eSpov KaBii^s 
ftvcv avToh, Koi i^roCiuurop to vacrxcu 

17 Kal oyjftas ytvofiivris IpX'STaL fieToi t£v Scideica* koH ai;aicet- 

18 ikivrnv avroiv koI €a-dt6vT0}V, etvev o 'It^o-ovs, '^'Afj.fjv Xiyoa 
iySVf oTi etf ^£ vjuuSv Trapadcoo-ct /ui€^ d €<rBmv ix€t cfiov." 

19 01 de rip^airro \\m€i<r&ai^ icol Xeyeiv avr^ €ls Koff els, " M17 

20 n €y<4 ; " Kal iXAos, " M77 ti iyd ; " *0 8i iiroKpidch etvev 
avToTss " Els in twv b<ib€Ka, 6 iixpaiTToixevos H€t ifiov els to 

21 TpvpKlov, *0 iiiv vlbs Tov iivOpdirov virdyei, KaOiis yiypairrai 
v€pl avTOv' oval Si r^ ivdp(iTr<a iKcCvij^, bt oS 6 vlos tov 
ivOpdirov irapabiboTaC KoXbv rjv avT^, el ovk iyevvrjOri 6 
AvOpcairos iKelvos** 

22 Kal l(r0i6vT<ji)V avrciv, Xafiiiv 6 ^Iri^ovs &pTov evXoyrja'as 
iKka<r€, Kal Idco/ccv avTOiSy Kal etire, ** AifieTe, <f>iy€T€. Tovt6 

23 itm Th awfii fiovj* Kal kapi>v rd Trorrjpiov fixo^p^o^o-o.^ 
iboiKCV avTOLS' Kal liTiov i( avTov irivTes' Kal etirev avTois^ 

24 *'Tovt6 ioTt Th aXpii [lov, to ttjs Kaivrjs biadi^Krjs, to isepl 

25 Ttokk&v iK^vvSpievov, . ^kpJriv kiy<a ipXv, oti oi^Kiri ov pji Ttloa 

12 — 16. Matt. xxvi. 17 — 19 ; Luke as some MSS. read : cf. John viii. 9 : 
xxii. 7 — 13. are parallel. For an ac- Kord is used as an adverb, not a 
count of the discussions about the preposition. 

17-21. THE Last Supper. In MSS. and editions omitting them. 
Matt. xxvi. 20—25 ; Lukexxii, 14 — 18; 22. Institution of theEucha- 

John xiii. 2 — 20. rist. Matt xxvi. 26 — 29 ; Luke xxii. 

19. clt KoO' cts, i. e. e7t fcard els, 19, 20. 

ver. 26—40.] S. MARJTS GOSPEL, 6/ 

iK Tov y€VvrifiaT09 rrj^ A/aWXov, &)y t^s ffiiipas iKebnjs, orav 
oOto ttCv<o Kaiphv iv rfj fiaa-iXtCq tov 0coS." 

26 Kal {ffjanjcavrcs i^kdov els to Spos t£v 'EXatc^i^. Kal 

27 Xiyu auToTs 6 'Iryo-ovy, "'^Ori, vowes aKavbaXKrOT^area^e iv 
ifiol iv tjjwktI Ta&rrj' on yiypamai * ITardf o) tov iroiixiva, 

28 /cat diao-zcopTTio'dT^a'crai to, irpofiaTa* 'AA\a juieraro ^ep- 

29 ^i;ai fi6, irpoi^oa iJjutay cZy T^r roXtXafav." *0 8^ YleTpos i<f>ri 

30 ai3r^, " Kal et irivTcs a-KavbaXio'dria'OVTat, 4\A* ovk iyd** Kal 
\iy€i avVw 6 'It/o-oCj, "'Api^p X^o) crot, on frqpLepov iv Tp 
]n;icrl TaiTrj, irplv fj bU iXiKTopa (fxavrjaai, Tph iirapvrjari /ac." 

31 ^O bi in TtepicTfTov lAeye /maXXoi^^ " *E(ii^ fjtc 8/3 crwairo^avciy 
(TOi, oi n'q ae iirapvria'oixaiy *iQoxit^a)9 bi Koi 7r(irrc9 IXeyoi^. 

32 Kal IpxpvTai els x<ji>pCov, oS to Svofxa TeSoTjfmvfj' Kal 
kiyei Tois \xaOriTais auTov, " Kad^o-are &be Icos Trpoo-et/fco/iat.'* 

33 Kal vapaXapLpivei tov JJirpov Kal tov ^liKUifiov Kal *loi>iwriv 

34 fieff iavTov. Kal fip^aTo exdafi^eur^ai ical iibriyjovelv, Kal 
kiyei avToty, ** Ii€pChyn6s iariv fj yjfvxrj fiov i(as 6av6.T0V' 

35 iieCvaTe cSde <cal yprjyopeiTe** Kal ispoeXOhv ixiKpov, eireaev 
iirl TTJs yrjs, koI irpoaijix^To, tva, el bk)vaT6v iari, irapiXOrj 
iir* avTov fj £pa' Kal ikeyev, ** *A)3j3a, 6 iraTrip, irivTa bvvaTi 

36 o-ot. TiapiveyKe to iroTrjpiov att ipLov roCro' dXX' ov tC iyi^ 

37 6i\o}, iXXh tC aii" Kal Ipx^Tai xal evpCcKei ai}rov9 KoBei" 
bovTas, KoX Xiyei r(p TIiTp<^, " ^Cfxoiv, Kadeibeis ; ovk fo^vo-as 

38 [iCav &pav yprfyopTfcai ] yprjyopeiTe Kal irpoaevxea-Oe, tva fx^ 
€l(riX$YjT€ rfs Ti€ipacr\x6v, To pkv irvevfia irpodvfjLov, 17 bk 

39 o-cipf ia-Bevi^s.** Kal 'jr6Xiv iireXBaiV irpooTjv^aTo, Tdv avTov 

40 Aoyov elirdv. Kal vitoarpiy^as eipev a'iToiiS iraXu^ KaO€6bovTas' 

26 — 31, Matt xxvi. 30 — 35 ; John 33. &Si|)fcovctv, some derive from 

xiiL 21 — 30. are parallel. Luke xxiL ASi^/ios, one not at home^ and so, ill at 

21 — 38. adds to the account of Peter's ease: others from dfi^o;, to satiate^ hence, 

confident assertions, the strife as to to loathe^ as one satiated, 
which should be the greatest 

27. iraTd(w irp^^TO. Quoted 36. &ppa. The meaning of this 

from Zech. xiii. 7. nearly literal. The is precisely the same as that of 6 iran)/), 

imperatives of the Hebrew and LXX. viz. O Father, For this use of the 

are changed into futures. article with nom. instead of the voca- 

32—42. The Agony. Matt, xxvl tive, cf. v. 41. supra, 
36 — ^46 J Luke xxiL 39 — ^46. 


fi<rav yhp 61 6<tf0aXiidl avr&v P^PofnuUpoL, jcal ovk ^b€urav tC 

41 Kal ipxercu to rplrov^ kcI kiy€i avrois, '^Ko^cvdere ro 
\oiirbv KoX ivaTrav€(rO€, 'Avex^^' 7JK$€P ^ ^pa" Ihob, vapa- 
b(hoT<u 6 vlos Tov ivOpfiirov efe rhs xclpas tQv inuaproik&v. 

42 *Ky€Cp€a0€, iyafiev* Iboh, 6 vapahibims fi€ ^yyixe." Ka2 

43 €vdiai9, hi aJrov \aXovvT09, vapayCverai 'lovdas, et; 
£v t£v b<ih€Ka, Kal {xer ovtov S^Kos iroA^s iierh iuixaipZv 
KaX (fiktaVf vapi t£v ipxiepioav koI t£v ypap^rioav koX tmp 

44 'ttp€<TpvT€p(av, Ae5(Dic€i bi 6 vapabiboiis avrov crvaariiiov 
ai7roi9» Kiyoiv, "^Ov ip (fnKT^tnaf oJtos Ioti' Kpan^iraTe avrop, 

45 Koi ivaydy€T€ ixr<l>a\ois^* KolL iXOiitpy eSOims vpotr^kO^p avr<p 

46 Xeyet, " *Pa/3)3t, papfil^" koL Kar€<pCKn<r€P avrop. 01 bi Ivi- 
fiakop Iv coStop Tas x^'Sp^i^ avrcSi;^ koI iKparqaav ovtSp. 

47 EU bi TLs t£p TrapforriKSTOiiP <nraa'diJL€POS TrfP pA\aipav 
iiraiac top bovKop tov ipxtepeo)?, xol d^ciXev avTov to 

48 &tCop. Kal diroKpiOfls 6 ^Irjarovs €t'n€P ovtols, " *Q,s inl 
\jiar)ip i(i]\$cT€ nerh ixaxatpoip Kal ^Xoap ovAAa^eu' fxe; 

49 Koff fip,ipap TjiiriP vpos vpas ip rf Up^ bibdaK<op, kolL ovk 

50 iKpaTfja'aTi /xe* aXX' Iva itkriponOtao-ip at ypaipaC*^ Kal 

51 d<l)iirr€S avTop vdpTe? i<f>vyop. Kal €U tis pcopCotkos rJKo\ov0€i 
avT^, irepLPepkripLipos a-ipbopa iirl yvpvov. Kal KpaTovatv 

52 avrov ol p^aplfTKOV 6 bi KaToXvninf r^p <ri,pb6pa yvpjfos l<t>vy€P 

53 dir avTwp, Kal dinjyayop top ^Iyjcovp irpos top dp^icpia' kolL 
(rvpfpxpPTai avT^ irdpTts ol dpxicpeis Kal ol Trp^trfivTepoi ical 

54 ol ypa/m/xarcis. Kal 6 Ilcrpo; diro pxiKpod^p -qKoKovOrfo-ep 
oOt^ ions i<ra> e!p ttjp aiiXrip tov dpxi^pioas' Kal ^p avyKa&if~ 
p€POS p>€Td rcSv virrjpeToip, Kal 6€ppLat,p6p,€POS irpos to <j>ois, 

43—52. The Capture. Matt 49. ijiwiv; ist sing. impf. Med. 
xxvi. 47.7-5^ ; Luke xxii. 47 — 53 ; el/U (a rare Attic form). 
John xviii. i — 11. 51. cts ns viavCo-Kos. Some have 

supposed tliat this was S. Mark him- 

44. 8c8^KCi. 3rd sing, plupf. ind. seU* : others that it was Lazarus (cf. 
Act. BlSufu : augment omitted as in Smith's Diet, of Bible, su6 verba). 
XV. 7. infra. 53 — 65. The hearing before 

THE Jewish authorities. Matt. 

47. &^<tX«v. 3rd. sing. 2 aor. xxvi. 57—68 ; Luke xxii. 54 and 63 — 
Act. d^tp^o;. 65 ; John xviii. 12 — 24. 

Tcr. 65-66.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 69 

55 Ot 56 dpxL€p€LS Kal o\ov t6 (TvvihpLOv iCqTovv Kara tov 'It^o-ov 

56 yiaprrvplaVy tU to OavaT&trai adrov* koX oi;x ^pi>(TKOV, TiohXoX 
yhp hjfevbofmprupovv Ka'f aoTCVy koX Ivai al lAaprvpCai oiJic 

57 fjaav* KaC rives dvaaravrcs hjrevboiiapTvpovv kot* cuStov, 

58 \€yovT€S, "*'Oti TjfJLcls fiKovorafiev wirov Acyowos, ''On iyi^ 
jcaroAvo-o) rov vaov tovtov tov \€ipoTroCriTOV, Kal bia TpiMV 

59 t]fi€p£v iXKov ax^tpovoiriTov o^Kodo/uiTfo-a)." Kal odSk oSrois 

60 loTj ijv rj fiapTvpCa avr(Si;. Kal dvauTTas 6 dp\i€p€vs tls to 
fiia-ov iTTiipdrriae tov 'Itjctovv, \iy<av, ** Oi5k diroKpCvri oidhiv ; 

61 tC oStoC crov KaTapLapTvpovaw ;** *0 de iaLdira, Koi ovbiv 
dircKpCvaTo. IlaAti; 6 dp\i€p€vs imjpdTa oOtov, koI Xeyet 

62 oOt^, *' 2u cl 6 XpKTTos, 6 vlos TOV ejSkoyriTov ;" *0 bi 'ItjctoSs 
ciTrey, "'Eyco cJ/txt. Kcfi Syjfea-de tov vlov tov dvOpdirov KoJO-q^ 
fievov iK bc^L£v ttjs bvvdfi€(»>s, fcal ip\6fJL€vov ficTa t&v 

63 V€(t)€\£v TOV ovpavov,** *0 hi dpxi€p&)s bia^pi^^as tovs 

64 x*™^tt5 avTov Aeyct, ** Tt In xpcCav i-xppicv frnprvpoiv ; 
fjKovaraTe ttjs p\aa(t)TifiCas' tC vfuv ^^a&erai;" 01 bi irdvT^s 

65 KaT€Kpivav odTov €tvai lvo\ov Oovutov. Kal rjp^avTo rwcs 

ifJLTnV€lP odTt^y KOlI TTCpiKOkUTTTHV TO TlpSadyiTOV ttl^TOV^ KoX 

Ko\a<f>lCci,v avTov, koX Xeyeti; aiJrw, ** Hpo(l)'^T€vaov' " koL ol 
vinjpiTaL paTtla-pxuTiv adrov i^aXkov, 

55. o-uW8piov, identical with San- and of some of the more eminent 
hedrim, which is the same word in scribes : the high-priest would be a 
Aramaic dress. This coupcil is said member ex officio. Whether the total 
by the Jews to have originated at the number was seventy, or seventy-one, or 
time when Moses was . commanded seventy-two, is not certain. They held 
(Num. xi. 16.) to * gather seventy men their meetings usually in an outlying 
of the elders of Israel,' to be his assist- chamber of the Temple, built of hewn 
ants. As, however, there is no trace stone^ hence called GawzUh ; but some- 
of the continuous existence of such a times, as this narrative shows, in the 
council through the times of the kings ; high priest's house, which was pro- 
most Christian writers agree that tiiis bably an official set of rooms forming 
assembly was only intended for a part of a block of buildings in which 
temporary purpose, and soon came to others of the fraternity livai when in 
an end. The council we read of in residence at Jerusalem. 
N. T. probably arose, as its Greek 62. 0i|r€<rOc. 2nd plur. fut ind. 
name shows, ailer the period of the 6/x£(i) is used as pres. 
Macedonian supremacy; possibly 63. Sia^^VjIos, part. I aor. Act. 
during the times of the Maccabees, 8ta/J^Tj7w/u. 

It consisted of the dpx^^P^^^ or heads 65. i)p£avTO. 3rd plur. i aor. 

of the twenty-four courses into which Med. AoYb;. 

the priests were divided ; of the elders fpoAAov, has l>een substituted 


66 Kal SvTOs tov Tiirpov iv t§ avXp icarco, ipxerai fiCa t&v 

67 nraiZLo-K^v tov i,pxt€pia>S9 kcH Ibovaa rbv Tlirpov OcpfiatpS^ 
li€VOV, iiifiXh^aaa avr^ A.^€i, ** Kcu oi jmerct roS t^aCaprivov 

68 'I?ycroS fjarOa.^* *0 i^ i^pi^iyo-aro, kfyatv, " Ovic oSa, oi/di 
imaTOixaL rC aii A^cts." Kal i$fj\6€V f^<a cJs ri Trpoat/Aioi;* 

69 KcU iXiiCTOip i(f><iinj(r€* Kal fj vaihCa-Krj Ibovaa aJrhv viKw 
rlp^aTo kiyftv rot? Trap€<miK6(nv, ""On oStos i^ oJtwv iariv.* 

70 *0 a irihiv fipvtLTO. Kal /leTa iiiKpbv TtaXiv ol 'irapeoTcSrc; 
IXeyov rf Flerfxpy ** ^A\rid&s i^ avrcoi' eZ* xal yctp FaXiAato; 

71 €^ fcal fj XaXiA <rov djiouiC^i,** *0 bi rjp^aro kvaB^yMrlC^uf 
KuX 6pvi€iVy "*'Ort ovk oZ8a riv ivOptAttov tovtov, bv Aeycrc.'* 

for iXaPWf the reading preferred by him was the same who had previously 

almost all the best authorities, in con- admitted him. Second denial — 

sequence of the difficulty of translating S. Peter, to avoid observation, has 

the latter. Alford translates it, ** tAey withdrawn from the open court under 

fook Him in hand with — treated Him the archway, leading to the folding 

with — slaps on the/ace,^* gates which gave ^ress to the street : 

66—72. The denials. Matt, the servants draw each other's attention 

xxvL 69 — 75 ; Luke xxii. 55 — 62 ; to him ; and at length he is again ques- 

John xviii. 1 7, 18, 25 — 27. tionedby several persons {tlirov, S. John) 

Dean Alford in his Notes on Matt. S. Matthew mentions another maid; 

xxvi. 69. has a tabular view of the four S. Mark, the maid ; S. Luke, another 

different accounts of the denials, which man. Third denial. — A little while 

sho>^^ at a glance the variations in the after (Matt and Mark) ; after an 

narratives. First denial — S. Peter, interval of about one hour (Luke), 

sitting in the rectangular court open to St. Peter, having perhaps in the mean- 

the sky, into which the room of exami- while entered into conversation with 

nation (on the first story, as would those about him, the Galilean dialect 

appear from icdrw in ver. 66. ) looked ; attracts attention, and the bystanders 

is taxed by a maid — one of the high- (Matt, and Mark) ; some other man 

priest's servants as S. Mark tells us ; (Luke) ; Matchup kinsman (John), 

S. John adds that her duty was to keep again tax him with intimacy with Jesus, 

the door — with being a companion of adducing as a proof his dialect, accord- 

the prisoner. The variations in the ing to the three Synoptists, while in 

form of the challenge are too great to S. John, the kinsman of Malchus 

be accounted for by the hypothesis remembers having seen him in the 

that they are different rendenngs of a garden : S. Peter utters several hasty 

common Aramaic original : hence it is sentences, mixed with asseverations, 

possible that the Apostle was assailed denying the fact, the cock crows, and 

by the porteress and a companion. In the Lord looks on Peter (Luke), at the 

companng the accounts it must be same instant 
borne in mind that the word rendered 

then (in John xviii. 17.) is in the 7a Kal ^ XoXid <rov 6|iOidtci. 

original olv^ and does not mean that These words unanimously omitted by 

S. Peter was addressed by the maid the best MSS. and editions, seem to 

when she admitted him^ but points out have crept into the text from Matt 

that she who afterwards questioned xxvi. 73. 

ver. 72— 2.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. J\ 

72 Koi Ik bevripov iXiKT(op Icfxivrforc, Kal avciAvrjaBri 6 Uerpos 
Tov prjpxLTos ov ctirei; avr^ 6 'Iijcrovs, ''"On irplv iXiKTopa 
<l><av7J<rai hh, aTrapvrjirri jie rpls** Kal iinPakiiiv licAaie. 

XV. Kal €v9€(as iirl to irpoA avfiPovXLov 'jroLT]a-avT€s ol ipx^^- 

p€is fJL€Ta T&v Trpca-jSwipoiv Kal ypayLiiarkaiv^ koL Skov to 
(TvvihpioVy h-fiaavT^s t6v ^Irjaovv ain^vcyKav Kal irapiboiKav t^ 

2 riiXcira). Kal iTrripdrrjacv avTov 6 IltkiTos, '*2i cl 6 

72. lirk^aX<&v. The difficulty of tion has been very busy with his name. 

Seeing what is the connecting thought Connected with him more or less 

to be supplied here, has occasioned a remotely, are the Gospels of Nicodemus 

host of explanations. That of the or Gesta Pilati^ extant both in Greek 

E. V. seems as good as any : ixipa\<i>v and Latin ; tAe AnapAora Pilaiiy ex- 

sc. rhv pouVf when he turned his atten- tant in two Greek versions ; the Letter 

tion to it — thought thereon. Others to Tiberiiis ; iiht Faradosis Pilati ; and 

give hri^, meanings which the word the Mors Pilati. All these are to be 

will not bear : e. g. he bfgan to weep ; found in Tischendorf *s collection of 

he continued weeping : or supply much Apocryphal Gospels : for Ae most 

more than would occur to an ordinary part these apocryphal writings add no 

reader : e. g. ^r^r/ (his eyes on Jesus): new facts to those told us by the 

he threw (Ws garment over his head). Evangelists, but give the same account 

XV. I — 5. Examination by in a ridiculously exaggerated shape. 

Pilate. In Matt xxvii. i, 2 and 1 1 — We are told that many of those cured 

14; Luke xxiii i — ^4; John xviii. by Christ, among whom was Veronica, 

28--38. S. Matthew (whose is the the woman who had been suffering 

only Gospel that records it) places the from an issue of blood, appeared before 

death of Judas at this point. S. Luke Pilate and gave evidence in favour of 

alone records the interview with Herod, the accused. The penitent thief is 

I. niXdnp. Pontius Pilate (perhaps called Djrsmas ; the impenitent one 

connected with /^m, a cap of liberty) Gistas. A towel which had become 

was the sixth procurator of Judaea ; impressed with the portrait of Jesus, 

his term of office reaches over the is sent by Veronica to Tiberius, who 

whole period of Christ's public ministry, in mortal sickness had sent to implore 

Called in N. T. by the word riyefjubp, Jesus* aid. On beholding the portrait 

a less exact title than the regular Tiberius recovers, but is infuriated at 

iirlrpoiros. Although possessed of full finding that Pilate has put Jesus to 

power in minor matters, in all the death. Pilate is summoned to Rome, 

more important ones such as the and comes wearing the ** coat ivithout 

declaring of war, he was subordinate seam woven from top to bottom.'"* As 

to the proconsul of Syri&. Some few long as the sacred garment remains on 

years after this, he was sunmioned to him Tiberius can only address him in 

Rome by Tiberius to meet complaints the mildest accents : but being informed 

brought against him by the Samaritans, about the garment he has it removed, 

On arriving in Rome, he found Tiberius speedily condemns Pilate, who dies by 

dead and Caligula in power. After- his own hand. His remains are diffi- 

wards, says Eusebius (Hist Eccl. ii. 7. cult to dispose of : the Romans are 

(juoted in Diet. Bible, sub verbo), he fell forced to pull the corpse out of the 

into such misfortunes as to become a Tiber in consequence of the tempest 

self-murderer. This is nearly all that is excited by its presence. It is taken to 

positively known about him ; but tradi- Vienna (said to mean via gehennae) 

72 S, MARK'S GOSPEL, [Ch. XV. 

/3a(riXev$ r&v ^lovbaltav ; *' *0 hi ivoKpiBels etircv adrS, *^ Sv 

3 kiycis** Kal KaTriy6povv avrov ol ipxicpfCs TroXkd' o hi 

4 TliXdros Tr6Xiv iTrrjp<iTrj(r€V avrov, Xiyoiv, "Ovk ivoKpCvri 

5 ovhiv ; thCf TrJcra aov KaraixaprvpovaLV** *0 hi ^Iqa-ovs ovKirt 
ovhiv air^KpCBri, Sore OaviiAC^iv top ITtAaroi/. 

6 Kara hi ioprriv iTriXvev avrois &a hiafuov Sw^p 'provvro. 

7 *Hy hi 6 kry6[i€Vos Bapafipas fiera t£v avaraaLaar£v dede- 

8 filvos, otrives iv r^ or^io-ei i^vov ^eTrotificcto-ar. Kal dva- 
Porjaras 6 SxKos ijpiaTo alT€la'$aL, KaOias icl iiroUi avrdls* 

9 *0 hi Tlikiros i/a^KpiOy^ clutoIs, Xiy<av, " G^Xere iTroXt/cra) 

10 vfilv rhv fiaa-iKia t&v 'lovdaftoi; ; " 'Ey^^oxTKe yctp Xrt dia 

11 ^Oovov Trapahei<iiK€i<rav avrbv ol ipxicpcls* 01 hi ipxitpels 
iviafKrav rov S^Xov, tva fiaXXov tov BapafiBav iiroXiiaji 

12 aJTols. *0 hi TLlK6tos iiroKptOch iraKiv cI-jtci; avrois , "Tf 

13 oSv 6ek€T€ voirj(r<a bv \iy€T€ ^aaiXia r&v 'Iov5a£oDi; ; " Oi 
i^ hi irdkiv iKpa^av, ** Sravpoxroi; auroi;." *0 hi TLiXdros IXeyev 

adroLS, "Ti ybp KaKov iiroCriarcvl*' Ol hi -jrepicrcroT^pcos iKpa^av, 
15 '' Dravpoxroi; aUrov*^ *0 hi IliXaros Povk6ii€vos rf ^X^¥ ^^ 

on the Rhone. The same disturbance many others, had in the disturbed state 

ensues. The natives take it to Losania of the country taken to a kind of 

( ? Lucerne) ; being tormented, the guerilla warfare ; perhaps a member 

people of that place finally conv^ it of the sect of the zealots ; he had in an 

to a pit surrounded by mountams ; encounter with the Roman forces been, 

where (says the writer) traces of diabolic taken prisoner, not without having 

agency still remain. Hence the tradi- killed some of those who attempted to 

tion mentioned by Scott in Anne of capture him, and now lay for execu- 

Geierstein (and quoted in Smith's Diet. tion. Some trace the origin of the 

o/BibUj sub verbo)^ that from the lake customary release of prisoners at the 

at the summit of Mount Pilatre (a Passover season, to Uie indulgences 

gloomy height close to Lucerne), a shown to captives at Rome at the time 

shadowy form may sometimes be seen of the lectistemium, 
to emerge and wash its hands ; at such irciroi^KCufav, 3rd plur. plupp. Act. 

times the mountain top is wrapped in tm^ci;. For the omission of Uie aug- 

darkness and a violent tempest always ment, cf. SeSc^icei, xiv. 44. 
follows soon. 8. &vapo^ioxi.s. Several good 

6—15. Pilate tries to rescue MSS. and editions prefer dradds, 

Jesus. Matt xxvii. 15 — 26; Luke got up* 
xxiii. 13 — 24 ; John xviii. 38 — ^40. 10. ^O^ov, always in a bad 

7. BofMippas. Either the son sense, efvuy: ^Xo$ occupies a middle 
(/. & the beloved son) of his father, or, place, sometimes meaning an honour- 
son of Abbas, a proper name of not able emulation^ at others being synony- 
infrequent occurrence. One, who with mous with <f>$6voi. 

ver. 16-22.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 73 

Ikovov iroLtjaraif iLiriXva-ev avrols rbv BapafiPcLV* KOt irapibonK^ 
Tov *Iriaovv, (t)pay€\\<i<raSf tva aravp<a67J. 
i6 01 hi arpaTL^Tai airrjyayov avTov Icrco ttjs aUkijs, S iari 

17 irpavrdptoVf Kci avyKoKovarLV 0A771; 7771^ avcipav, kolI ivbvov<rLV 
avTov itopit^paVy kcX irepiriOiaaiv avT^ irXe^avrfs iKavSivov 

18 <ni(f>avoVy koL rjp^avro i.(nrdC^(r6ai avrov, ^'Xalpt, fiaa-ikev 

19 Toiv 'Iov5a^a>i;." ILal trvirrov avroS riiu K€(f>aKtjv KoKdfu^, 
Koi ivitrrvov air^^ kcX ti0€VT€s tcl yovara itpptr^Kvvovv aiJrf . 

20 Kol Sre iviiraL^av avr^, i^ibvaav avrov Trjv vopifwpaug koI 
ivibvaav avrov ra Ifjuiria ra tbia' Kal i^dyovaiv avrov, tva 

21 <rravp<ua-<aa'tv avrov, Kal dyyapeiova-L irapdyovrd riva 
^CfKova Kvprjvaiov, ip^oiicvov dv dypov, rov iraripa 'AXefav- 
bpov Kai *Pov<^oVy tva ipn rov aravpov airov. 

22 Kal <l>ipovariv avrov iirl FoXyoOa rovov, S iari pL^B^piit]" 

15. ^pa^yiXX^o-as, from ^payeX- 21. dYyopc^voi, impress. The 
\6<o, the 'Latin ^g-el/o, word is derived from the Persian, and 

16 — 23. Jesus is handed over is used by Herodotus (viii. 98.) to 

TO THE soldiers, AND LED AWAY denote the system of postal service 

TO BE CRUCIFIED. Matt, xxvii. 24 existing in Persia. 
— 34 ; Luke xxiii. 25 — 33 ; John xix. 2£|M0va Kvptivatov. This man was 

I — 17. a native of the Cyrenaica, a narrow 

16. itpaxr&^xav^pratoriumy i. e. strip of territory stretching along the 
the general's head-quarters, whether in N. coast of Africa w. of Alexandria, 
camp or not. Pilate occupied a palace in the neighbourhood of the S3rrtis, so 
built by Herod the Great on the called from the chief town Cyrene. 
western hill, but connected with the He may have been one of the disper- 
eastem .or Temple hill by a bridge. sion come to keep the feast 

onrcCpav, the regular Greek equiva- t^v irai^pa 'AXi{dv8pov koI 'Po^ 

lent for cohors, the tenth part of a ^ov. Nothing certain is known of 

legion. these persons : from the way in which 

17. &Kdy9iVov OTii^vov. The they are mentioned it has been con- 
plant employed is identified by botanists jectured that they were better known 
with that now called by the Arabs, to the early church than their father : 
nebk: it is very common all over possibly all three became Christians. 
Palestine, growing sometimes as a If so, the Rufus of this passage may be 
shrub, sometimes as a tree nearly forty the same as S. Paul's friend (Rom. 
feet high. The leaves are of a pale xvi. 13.) : and in that case, as S. Mark 
green colour, something like ivy in probably composed his Grospel at 
shape ; thus the mock resemblance to Rome for the use of that church, there 
the classic crowns would be well kept would be a special propriety in the 
up. or^^vos is a wreath: the em- introduction of the names by him 
blem of kmgly sovereignty is hiiZrifM, alone. S. Matthew and S. Luke only 

TrtpiTtO^curiv. 3rd plur. ind. pres. speak of ** one Simon a CyrenianJ** 
T€piTl0TffUf Attic form. irX^vrcs, 22. FoXtoOo, Heb. Gulgowleth^ a 

part. I aor. Act. ir\4K(a, head. It was the ordinary place of 

74 S. MARirS GOSPEL, [Ch. XV. 

23 v€i)6yL€vov, KpavCov tovos. Kal ihlbow avr^ irieiv ivivopvitr- 

24 \iivov otvov 6 bi ovK IXa)3€« Kcu aravpoiacurrfs avrdv, 
bLefiiptCov rd l/xarta avrov, pdXXovT€9 Kkrjpov i'ff avra, rk 

2$ tC ipji, ^v hi &pa TpCrq, Kal iaravpiaaav avTov, Kal rjv fj 

26 iTnypatfni rrjs ahCas avrov iiny^ypaixiiivrj, " *0 PaaiKevs Toiv 

27 *JovbaC<ov** Kal avv avrS aravpova-i bvo kparas, iva in 

28 b€(i£v Koi iva i( evoavifKov avrov. Kal iTrXrjpdOri fi ypaqnj 

29 rj kiyovaa, * Kal fierd dvofioav ikoylaOri* Kal ol Ttapa- 
TTopevofJLCvoi ipXactfirjfiow avrov, KLVOvvrts ras K€(l}aXas avf£Vf 
Kal \€yovr€Sf " Ova, S KaraXviav rov va^v, Kal iv rpiaiv 

30 rjfxipais olKohofjLMV, cr&crov acavrov, Kal icardfia airo rov 

31 aravpov,^* *OfwC(os de Kal ol apxt'^pcls ifiiraCCovres irpos 
dXkrj\ovs fierd roiv ypaixfAari(av ik^yov, "''AAAovs liraxrcr, 

32 iavrov ov bvvarai cra>(ra(. *0 Xpiaros 6 Pa(n\€vs rov ^lo'parjk 
Karapdroa vvv diro rov aravpov, tva tboaiicv Kal •jrioTevcrco/Ltei'." 
Kal ol avvcffravpcafjiivoi avr^ iveCbiCov avrov. 


execution outside the gate, but near quite naked — ^the c)pth about the loins 

the town : the name has been explained seen in pictures is due to the Gospel 

as referring to the shape of the place, of Nicodemus, where we are told that 

a round skull-like elevation, hence the soldiers girt him with a. scarlet 

Mount Calvary (the Calvaria of the cloth. 

Vulgate) : this seems more probable 25. fy Zk cSTpa rpCrru i. e, about 

than to derive the name from the 9 a. m. and the accounts of S. Matthew 

quantity of skulls found there in con- and S. Luke agree with this. On the 

sequence of the frequency with which other hand, S. John (xix. 14. ) says, it 

executions went on : for all dead bodies was about the sixth hour when Pilate 

would be scrupulously buried by the brought Jesus out, arrayed in royal 

Jews to prevent defilement. insignia some time before the cruci- 

23. 4<r|ivpvur}jiivov otvov, medi- fixion. Now, if all four Evangelists 
cated wine : given from humane reckon according to the Roman method 
motives to blunt the senses, and as S. Mark undoubtedly does, there 
thereby render the pain less acute. would be a great discrepancy between 

24 — 32. The Crucifixion. Matt, the S)moptists and S. John, for he 

xxviL 35 — ^44 ; Luke xxiii. 33 — ^43 ; would represent it to have been noon 

John xix. 18—27. before the Crucifixion began. But no 

24. aravp^<ravTcs. The cross doubt S. John follows another method, 
was driven into the ground and the reckoning from midnight, so that his 
sufferer lifted upon it, or he was sixth hour will be 6 A. M. which would 
fastened to it while it lay on the bring the time of the Crucifixion to 
ground, then it was lifted and let about 9 A. M. 

down into its socket. In either case 28. The whole of this verse is 

the feet were not more than two feet almost certainly spurious. The best 

from the ground, so that in pictures editions are un^imous in omitting it. 
our Lord is usually represented much 30. Kardpa (for Kard^ridi), Attic 

too high. The sufferer was stripped imperat. 2 aor. of Karapaivd), 

ver. 3a~40.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 75 

33 T€VOfA€vrjs i€ &pas iicnjs, ctkotos iyiv^ro €<^' Sk-qv t^v 

34 y^v* ^ft>5 (Spas ivvdrris' Koi rfj (Spc^ rfj ivvdrp tporjaev 6 
'Itjo-ovs (fxavfj ficyaXji, XiyoDv, " 'EAcol, '£Aa)t, Aa/m/xa trafiaxr 
Bavi ; " o €<m fX€0€piir}V€v6iJL€voVy " *0 0€os /xov, 6 0€os /utou, 

35 cZs T^ /Lt€ ^icaWXtTrey ; " Kal nvis t&v wap€OTr;icora)i; dicot;- 

36 <rai/T€5 iXeyov, " 'I6ov, 'HXiai; <^a)i/€t." Apafiiav bi €h, koI 
ycfila-as a-iroyyov ^fovy, irepLdels t€ KoXifxi^ ivonC^v avrbv, 
\ey<av, "''Ai^ere, tdco/^ci' cJ ipyjtrai ^VLKlas Ka^cActv avTov" 

37 *0 8^ 'Itjo-ovj &<^€l9 (fxuvrjv fieyaXriv i^invevare* Koi to 

38 KaTairiraaiJLa t(w vaov iaxMri ct9 dt/o, &7rd iif<ii>0€V luas icdro). 

39 'I86i)i; Si 6 KCVTvpCoDV 6 irapcoTT/KCt)? cf ivavrlas avrov, 8ti 
ovToa Kpi^as i£iTrv€V<T€V, clir^v, " 'AAiy^dis S ivOpwiros ovtos 

40 vlbs ^v &€ov" ^H(rav hi Kal yvvalKcs iirb fjLaKp60€V ^co)- 
povaaiy iv als rjv koX MapCa ^ MayboKqvii^ kolI MapCa ^ rod 

33 — ^41. The Death, and ac- spiritually great. Except in connexion 

COMPANYING WONDERS. Matt xxvii. with the events of the Passion, her 

45 — 5^ * Luke xxiii. 44 — 49 ; John name only occurs in Luke viiL 2. 

xix. 28—30. S. John alone records where she is mentioned as one of 

the piercing of His side. several women who journeyed with 

33. Matt, xxvii. 45 ; Luke xxiiL our Lord and ministered to His wants : 
44, are exactly parallel. For the she had been tormented by evil spirits 
sidjustment of this to S. John's narra- in no ordinary way, for we are told 
tive, cf. ver. 25, supra, that out of her went seven devils. The 

34. <rapax6avC is 2 pers. sing, idea that Mary Magdalene and the 
Past Kal or Peal of sawbak^ ** to woman who was a sinner (Luke vii. 
</^^/," with the pronoun m^ attached. 37.) are the same person, although 

36. KoOcAstv. 2 aor. infin. countenanced by the heading to the 

KaQaxpibi, seventh chapter of S. Luke's Gospel 

39. KcyrvpCcdv, the Latin centurio, in ordinary English Testaments, and 

40. Mapui fj Ma^SoAYiWj. The the cause of several penitentiaries being 
name Mary is the Heb. Miriam, perh. called after Mary Magdalene, is quite 
the faiy or strong one, Magdalene has without foundation. It is in the highest 
been variously explained, usually and degree improbable that a woman pos- 
with most probability as a native of sessed by seven devils could have led a 
Magdala I The Talmud connects her harlot's life. Still less ground is there 
name with a root, gaivdal, meaning to for supposing, as some have done, that 
plait the hair^ and represents that she Mary the sister of Lazarus, Mary 
was one who plaited hair on the Magdalene, and the woman who was a 
Sabbath, contrary to the law : this sinner, are all one. There is nothing 
seems an idle legend invented to throw in the notices of Mary of Bethany 
discredit on the Christians. Among which could lead to the conclusion 
the fathers, some connected her name that her life had ever been impure, 
with Migdol, a watch-tower, hence, M. fj *I. koI 'loKri) (i^ifnip. Who 
one of steadfast faith ; others with this woman and her sons were is diffi- 
gawdal, to be great, and so, one cult to say, without entering upon the 


41 'IcuccijSov rov yuKpov koX ^laxnj fifJTripg koL SoXci/^ty, at icai, St€ 
ijv iv 7^ FakiXalt^ rJKoXoiOovv air^, koX birjKovow avr<p, 
Kol iXkcu TToXkal al ffwavafiaa'aL avr^ €ls 'lepoa-JAv/ma. 

42 Kci rjbri d^^as y^voiiAirqSy corel 7)V napaaKevfi, 8 itrri 

43 vpoaipfiaTov, fj\0€V 'Ia)<r^<^ d &iro 'ApifmOaCas, €var)(rjiJL(ov 
Pov\€VTris, 8s ical avroy ijv iipoabexiififvo^ ttiv ^aaCk^lav rov 
®€ov* roA/ii^a'as thnjXB^ irpbs Hikirov, nai ffrrjaaTo to a&fia 

44 rov 'Itjo-ov. *0 bi TliXdros iBa6fjLaa€V e2 ^677 Ti6vr\Ke koX 
Trpoa-Kak€aipL€V09 rhv K€vrvpC(ova, iTrrjpdrria-ev ovtov €l iriKai 

45 iiriSopt' KOI yvohs airb tov KevrvpCoivos, iboapqa-aTO rb aQfjia 

46 T^ 'loxnj^. Kal iyopiaas aivbova, fca2 fca^cAci)!; avroi;, 
ivilktio'f TJj (rufbSvi, Kal KoridrfKcv airrbv hf fjaniy,€C(^, o ^v 
KekarofirifAevov iK virpas' Kal 7rpo<r€Kiu\L(r€ klOov ivX rqv 

47 Oipav TOV fivriiAeCov, *H bi MapCa fj Maybakqvti Koi MapCa 
'loxr^ iOedpovv irov tCOctm* 

XVI. Kal biayevojjJvov rov a-afipdrov, MapCa fj MaybaXrivfi 

Kol MapCa fj tov *laK<ifiov Kal ^a\<ip,ri riyopaa-av ipdixara, 

2 tifa i\0ovaat dXc^^coo-ti; airrov. Kal XCav irpoA rrjs fiMS 

discussion about "the Brethren of the Matt, xxvii. 57 — 61 ; Luke xxiii. 50 — 

Lord ; " the reader is therefore referred 56 ; John xix. 38 — 42, S. Matthew 

to the Appendix on that subject. alone records the placing a watch to 

4a ^oXi&uYi (probably fem. of Solo- secure the sepulchre by the Jewish 

mon, peacejul). Wife of Zebedee, and authorities. 

therefore mother of James and John 42. irapaoiccvfj 5 kam, irpoo^p- 

the apostles. We find her (x. 35. supra) parov. For an explanation of these 

asking for the seats of honour in behalf terms see the Appendix on the Last 

of her two sons : and this, where her Supper. 

name is not mentioned, is the only 43. 'ApifiaOaCas, probably the 

notice we have of her except in the Ramah of O. T. where the prophet 

accounts of the Passion. Many modem Samuel was bom, cf. I Sam. i. i. and 

critics hold that she was the sister of 19 : the later name is seen in the LXX. 

the Virgin Mary, arguing from John which in each verse has *kpfui^alfi, 
xix. 25. Others, however, and up till XVI. i — 4. Visit of the 

lately this was the usual opinion, hold women. Matt xxviii. I — ^4 ; Luke 

that the ^^ sister of His Mother '^ and xxiv. i — 3 ; John xx. i. 
Mary the wife of Cleopas are the same The details which follow are not 

person. All depends on the punctua- very easy to arrange in chronological 

tion : in the former case a comma is order. The arrangement here adopted 

inserted after the second aiJroD, in the is that of Tischendorf in his Synopsis 

latter it is omitted. Evangelica; a work which is, in the 

42 — ^47. Joseph of Arimathaea main, based on the researches of 

BEGS the body, AND BURIES IT. Wieseler. 

yer. a~12.] S. MARK'S GOSPEL. 77 

aafipiroiv, (p\ovTat ivl to \urri\uioVy ivareCXavTos tov f/XCov, 

3 Kal iKryov irpos iavrds' '^Tfs &7rofcvAt(r€i fnxw tov klBov 

4 €jc tQ; Oipas TOV iivrjfjLeCov ; " Kal iva^Kh^aaai Ocoipovaiv 

5 ^Tt iL7roK€Kv\i<rrai 6 \COos' ^v yhp pjyas (r<l>6bpa. Kal €l(r€\' 
$ov<rai €ls TO fivrjpLCLOV, clbov V€avC<rKov Ka&qiJL€Vov iv toTs 
hf^ioTsy ircpip^jBXrjixivov (noKiiv XcvKrjv* koI i^eBapLJBriOtiaav. 

6 *0 bi \iyei oxfTOLs, '* M^ iK6aixfi€ur6€. *lrj<rovv Cit€It€ tov 
'NaCaprjvov tov iaravpoifiivov' i^ipOri, oifK itmv £hv 256, i 

7 TOTSos ojtov idriKav avTov, 'AA\' viraycrc, cfcrarc to?s fjLoOrj" 
Tois airrov Koi r^ n^rp<jp^ Stl irpody^i ipMS €h ttjv TaXiXaCav* 

8 iK€i avTov S^ea-Oe, Ko^ca; ttiTev ipXv^ Kal ^^cX^oSo-at Tayy 
i(f)vyov iiro tov pannxeCov' etx^ bi avTas rpopjo^ koX iKorao-is' 
KoX ohh€v\ oiXkv etirov, i(f)opovvTo yap. 

9 ^Avaarhs bi irpoA Trpdrri aafipdrov i^vr\ vpQTOv MapCq, 

10 T^ MaybaXr}vyf i.<f! ^s iKp€BXrJK€i imh baipLovLo^ ^EkcCvt] 
irop€vd€i(ra iinfjyyctXf toXs /bicr' avrov ycvoixivois, m^vOova-t 

11 Kal KkaCova-i* KiKeufoi iKovaavTCS Sti (jj Kal iOcdOr} vir 

12 avTTJs TjirCffTTia'av. Mcr^ bi raSra bvaiv cf avr&v Trepiira- 
Tovaiv i<l>av€p<i$ri iv iript^ V^P^fly ifopevopiivots els aypovm 

2. dvarfCXavTos toO ^Cov, when and John xx. 2. S. Matthew xxviii. 

the sun was risen: which seems not ii — 15. alone records the flight and 

to agree with the 6p0pov pa64os of S. bribing of the guards appointed by the 

Luke, or the axorlas (hi oOarit of S. Jews. The visit of S. Peter and 

John. Perhaps the two latter look S. John (John xx. 3 — 10 ; and probably 

rather to the time of their setting out Luke xxiv. 12. which, however, is of 

for — S. Mark to the time of their doubtful authority,) is also omitted 

arrival at the tomb. Some have sug- here. I^vyov, 3rd plur. 2 aor. <l>€&Y(a. 

gested that the translation of the £. V. k^oPo^vro vdfi. For the evidence 

at the rising of the sun, is due to a relating to the genuineness of all that 

wish to make ike three accounts agree follows these words see the Appendix, 

more nearly. But it would hardly 9 — ii. Jesus appears to Mary 

answer that end, and is, to say the Magdalene. Matt, xxviii. 9, 10; 

least, quite as likely to have arisen John xx. 1 1 — 18. 

from inattention to the force of the 9. i^vn, 3rd sing. 2 aor. Pass. 

Aorist 4>cUyu}. iKpcpX^KCt, 3rd sing, plupf. 

5 — 7. The Angels address Act. iKpdXKut, 
THE women. Matt. xxviiL 5 — 7 ; 11. li§. 3rd sing. pres. indie, of 

Luke xxiv. 4 — 8. . the irreg. ^w. 

6. ^^9ii. 3rd sing. I aor. Pass. 12, 13. Jesus appears to the 

iyelpu, TWO ON the way to £mmaus. 

8. The women return and Luke xxiv. 13 — 35. 
tell the news to the Apostles. 12. iv Mpi^ F^fpM- Seems to 

Matt, xxviii. 8; Luke xxiv. 9 — 11. assign as the cause of their not recog- 


13 K&K€?i;o4 iLirO<B6vT€s imfyyeiXor rdls kovaolv cihi iK€ivoLs 

14 iirCareva'av. "Tar^pov ia/aKCiiiivoLs airois roTs IvbcKa ^^oi/c- 
pdOrjf Kci &V€(bi<r€ rijv iLirurrCav avr&v Kal aKXrfpoKapdlav, 

15 OTL Tois Oeaaafiivois avrdv iyriyiptiivov ovk iTrCarcva-au. Kal 
ftiTCV avToiy, ** lLlop€v6ivT€S €ls Tov KoapLov iiravra, Kqp6^aT€ 

16 TO ^vayyikiov irdfrrf rrj KriVcu *0 Tnareva'as kolL fiainurOels 

17 aoDOi^crcTai,' 6 bi iinan^a-as Karaicpi^rjcrcrat, ^rjp,€la bi rots 
Triateuaraa-t ravra TrapaKoKovOi^a-cL' hf T<p ivopuarl fwv baipLovia 

18 iKfiaKovai' ykda-aaLS kakrja-ovai Kawai;' o<^€ts^ ipovai' k&v 
6ava(npjov rt itCaxnVy ob piij avrovs ^Aai/rei* iirl i^pdarovs 
X€ipas iTTiO'qa-ova-i, koX koXQs (^ovaiv,** 

19 *0 jxei; ovv KHpios, pLcrh to XaKrjaaL avrois, i.V€Xri<t>Orf 

20 fls TOV oipavov, koX iKdOiaev in bf^Lotv tov &iov' iKeufOL 
bi iieXBovre^ iK-qpv^av TtavrayjA^ tov KvpCov avvfpyovvros 
Kal top Xoyov ^cPatovvros bib, tojv iTraKo\ov6ovinr<av ai\p.€i<i>v. 

nising Him, some change in His mien. 6vei$(^. fyi|Y^|Uvov, part perf. Pass. 

S. Luke says : ** But their eyes were i^elpu), 

holden that they should not know Him ; " 1 5 — 18. This may be the appear- 

tracing the cause rather to them than ance on the mountain in Galilee nar- 

to Him. K-op^ is the form or fashion rated in Matt. xxviiL 16 — 20. There 

of a thing both externally and in- is besides, the appearance to the dis- 

temally, cx^M^ only the superficial ciples at the Sea of Galilee, John 

outward appearance presented by it, xxi. i — 24. 

of. Rom. xii. 2. 17. IkPoXoOoti. 3rd plur. fiit 

kJ^\ ^ISXT"^''- 3'^ P'"- ^ ^°^- "Mr^lfc dfx^u As S. Paul 

14. Tischendorf places this verse xxviii. 3. &po<)<ri, 3rd plur. fut ind. 

in connexion with Luke xxiv. 36 — 43 ; afpcj. 

John XX. 19 — 25. where Jesus appears OavAonu^v rt irCcMnv. Tradition 

to the disciples in the absence of connects tne fulfilment of this with 

Thomas; but the expression ainw S. John's name, cf. note on I. 19. 

Tots ivl^Kd seems to point to ika^ presence supra. itCoktiv, 3rd plur. 2 aor. conj. 

of Thomas : in that case this verse icivta, 

will be parallel to John xx. 26—29. ^^9* ^- Jesus bids farewell 

&vaKct|Uvots airots rots IvScko, ^^to TO His disciples, and ascends 

the eleven themselves as they sai at meai.''' INTO heaven. Luke xxiv. 44 — 53; 

ibvcCSio^, 3rd sing, i aor. Act. Acts i. 3—12. 


On the meaning of the term 'Brethren of Jesus/ 

[The following article is an attempt to give in brief, an account of the 
thorough investigation which this question has received from Dr. Lightfoot 
{Epistle to GalatianSy pp. 247 — 281, 2nd edition.)] 

In reading the Gospels, we not unfrequently meet with 
notices of our Lord's brethren^ and once with a notice of His 
sisters. For instance, after the miracle at Cana (John ii. 1 2), 
He went down to Capernaum^ He^ and His mother^ and His 
brethren^ and His disciples. In the second year of His ministry 
while making a circuit of Galilee, His mother and His brethren 
stood without^ desiring to speak with Him (Matt xii. 46 ; Mark 
iii. 31 ; Luke viii. 19). Not long afterwards, while teaching 
in the synagogue at Nazareth, the bystanders, astonished at 
His wisdom and mighty works, remark : Is not this the car- 
penter,,, and His brethren James and Joseph and Simon and 
Judas ^ and His sisters, are they not all with us ? (Matt. xiii. 55 ; 
Mark vi. 3.) In the third year of the ministry, at the time 6f 
the feast of tabernacles, S. John (vii. 3) relates a conversation 
between Jesus and His brethren : they urge our Lord to go 
into Judaea and shew Himself pubHcly, for neither did His 
brethren believe in Him. After the Resurrection, Jesus bids the 
women tell His brethren to go into Galilee (Matt xxviiL 10 ; 
John XX. 17). Once more, immediately after the Ascension 
(Acts i. 14), they are mentioned as continuing with one accord 
in prayer and supplication, with the women and Mary the mot Iter 
of Jesus, 

8o BRETHREN OF JESUS. [A/fpendtX, 

Now what degree of relationship does the word brethren 
imply in these passages ? Is it used in a literal, or a quasi- 
literal, or a merely metaphorical, sense? Out of the many 
answers that have been given to this question, it seems best to 
select the three most reasonable and most widely accepted, and 
examine how far each meets certain requirements, which, as 
will afterwards be seen, are inseparably connected with this 

Up to the fourth century, a. d., two main views concerning 
the point before us were prevalent Most of those who had 
considered the matter, maintained that these brethren of our 
Lord were the children of Joseph by a former wife, so that they 
were called brethren of Jesus, just in the same way as Joseph 
was called His father, while no blood-relationship existed. 
Others however, among whom Tertullian was the most famous, 
insisted that the word brethren in all these passages must be 
understood in its most literal sense, and that these persons were 
the offspring of Joseph and Mary, bom in the ordinary course 
of nature, after the Nativity. During the fourth century, the 
question attracted great attention, in consequence of the 
preference then beginning to be felt for the unmarried state — 
a preference which showed itself in occasional attempts to force 
the Clergy to take vows of celibacy. About that time, 
Helvidius, an opponent of the prevailing asceticism, who lived 
at Rome, had very strongly maintained the position that 
these brethren were the actual offspring of Joseph and Mary, 
when Jerome, in opposition to him, proposed an entirely new 
theory : that these persons were our Lord's first cousins, being 
the children of Alphaeus and Mary the sister of the Virgin. 
This theory, with the following corollaries, has been perhaps 
the most popular of all. The corollaries necessary to support 
it, though not propounded by Jerome, are (i) the identity of 
the Alphaeus mentioned in the four lists of Apostles (Matt x. 
3 ; Mark iii. i8 ; Luke vi. 15 ; and Acts i. 13), and the Clopas 
mentioned (John xix. 25) as the husband of a Mary who is 
then considered the sister of the Virgin. Of course, Alphaeus 

Appendix^ brethren of jesus. 8i 

the father of Levi, or Matthew, Mark iL 14, is a different 
person. Whether the Cleopas of Luke xxiv. 18 is to be 
identified with the Clopas of S. John, is not so easy to decide. 
On the whole, it seems probable that they are different persons, 
and that Cleopas of S. Luke is a Greek name contracted from 
Cleopatros as Antipas is from Antipatros (cf Diet Bible, sub 
verba). But the Alphaeus of the lists of Apostles and the 
Clopas of S. John are most likely the same person, as the two 
names are Greek forms equally correct and legitimate of the 
Aramaean original Chalphai. 

The second corollary appended to the theory is the identi- 
fication of some of our Lord's brethren with certain members 
of the Apostolic body. First of all, the Jude who wrote the 
Catholic Epistle bearing his name, and is allowed by almost all 
to have been one of the brethren of our Lord, is on the 
theory we are now examining, held to be the same as the 
"Judas [brother?] of James" in S. Luke's lists : then James 
[the brother?] is taken to be James the son of Alphaeus: 
James the son of Alphaeus is assumed to have been the well- 
known bishop of Jerusalem — the president of the council 
(Acts XV. and Gal. ii.). Thus we have two of our Lord's 
brethren occup)ring places amongst the Twelve; and some 
have gone still further and have assumed that the Simon called 
Zelotes or the Canaanite, was also a cousin of Jesus alleging as 
a proof the juxtaposition of the three names. On this hypo- 
thesis, the Hieronymian theory as it is called by Lightfoot, in 
its complete form, we have two families living together, the 
Virgin, and a sister of the same name, who is the mother of 
four sons and at least two daughters, three of the sons being 
Apostles. Moreover James son of Alphaeus brother of our 
Lord and bishop of Jerusalem, is called the Less. (Mark xv. 40.) 
to distinguish him from the son of Zebedee, and the appellation 
implies that there were only^two Jameses. 

This Hieronymian theory, compact and satisfactory as it 
seems at first sight, has several weak points. To begin with, 
we have no authority for calling the son of Zebedee, James the 


82 BRETHREN OF JESUS. [Appendix, 

greaty and if we had, iuKp6i does not mean less, but iittle, so that 
the epithet seems to have been applied to James because he 
was like Zacchaeus 'little of stature'. Again, the theory rests 
on a particular punctuation of John xix. 25. as its key-stone. 
The verse in question runs as follows : Now there stood by the 
cross of Jesus, His mother and His mother's sister Mary the 
wife of Cleophas and Mary Magdalene, Were there three 
women or four ? this all depends on the omission or insertion 
of a comma after sister. The Peshito Syriac, quoted by 
Lightfoot, inserts a conjunction before the first Mary: "His 
mother's sister and Mary the wife of Cleophas " clearly showing 
that the translator understood four women to be meant Yet if 
this be so the whole theory falls to the ground, for then we have 
no means of proving, that any child or children of Alphaeus and 
Mary were in the slightest degree connected with our Lord's 
Mother or Himself. 

But there are other points brought forward by Lightfoot, 
which help still further to weaken the Hieronymian theory : (i) 
Jerome himself was the originator, and does not claim for it 
any support fi*om tradition. (2) After writing the treatise 
against Helvidius as a young man, he in after life, and especially 
after taking up his abode in Palestine, speaks very slightingly of 
it, and seems to have altered his opinion. To prove these two 
points by quotations would far exceed the limits of our space : 
they are both thcffoughly established by Lightfoot, and if once 
admitted, the Aeory must we think be given up. 

Other but less weighty objections are — that the word 
brethren would thus be used in a very wide sense, more suitable 
to a rhetorical harangue than a history of facts — ^that if two or 
three of our Lord's brethren were Apostles, it is strange to find 
S. John (vil 5.) not long before the crucifixion, saying that they 
did not believe in Him ; and that it then becomes difficult to 
explain, why S. James the most prominent, should have remained 
permanently at Jerusalem, instead of obeying the parting injunc- 
tion : " go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every 
creature." When we add to this the fact that these brethren, 

Appendix^ brethren of jesus. 83 

are always spoken of, in connection with the Virgin Maiy, 
never once in connexion with Maiy their supposed mother, and 
that to translate 'lovda^ ^loKafiov by Judas, the brother of James 
is opposed to the testimony of the Peshito and Thebaic versions, 
both of which supply the ellipse by sotiy while the old Latin 
Judas Jacobi offers no explanation; we have an array of objec- 
tions, which taken together seem irresistible. 

We thus have left the h)rpothesis, that these persons were 
the children of Joseph by a former marriage — the Epiphanian 
theory, (cf. Lightfoot quoted above) and the hypothesis that they 
were the actual children of Joseph and Maiy, bom after our 
Lord — ^the Helvidian theory. Before we consider the claims 
which these theories have for acceptance it may be as well to 
finish the enquiry whether James, the Lord's brother — ^bishop 
of Jerusalem was one of the Twelve. 

We have seen that the expression 'lovdap 'laxcoiSov should be 
rendered Judas son of James, — ^that the epithet /Acjcpdr does not 
refer to inferiority in rank but to shortness of stature — ^that in 
John xix. 25. Mary the wife of Cleopas, and the woman called 
His mother's sister, are two distinct persons, and, omitting several 
minor considerations, that it is improbable that any of our 
Lord's brethren were Apostles. Hence it follows that James 
the bishop, and Jude the writers of the Epistles, which bear their 
names, were most likely not apostles nor believers in Christ's 
divinity till after the Resurrection. An argument in favour of 
this view, slight indeed but worth adducing, may be drawn from 
what S. Paul says (i Cor. xv. 7.) After that he was seen of 
James : What James ? and why should a special appearance be 
vouchsafed to this particular person ? Judging by S. Luke's and 
S. Paul's language in other passages we should have no 
hesitation in identifying this James, with the bishop of Jerusalem, 
(cf. Acts xii. 17 : xxL i8 : with GaL iL 9. 12). And if so, is it 
unreasonable to suppose that he may have been converted to 
Christianity on this occasion, having previously been doubtful 
of Christ's daims ? Perhaps the following passage from the 
Gospel according to the Hebrews^ when duly weighed, will be 

84 BRETHREN OF JESUS. \Appendix. 

found to confirm the view here taken, "Now the Lord, when He 
had given the linen doth to the servant of the priest, went to 
James and appeared to him. For James had sworn that he 
would not eat bread from the time that the Lord had drunk the 

cup, until he saw Him rising from the dead Bring ye said 

the Lord a table and bread, and He took bread, and blessed 

and brake it, and gave it to James the Just, and said to him, 
My brother eat thy bread for the Son of Man is risen from the 
dead." This passage quoted by Lightfoot, is taken from Jerome 
{de viris illustribus II). In translating, " had drunk the cup " 
the reading biberat calicem Domint^ has been adopted, of 
course referring to our Lord's death, by a well known metaphor, 
but it is right to mention that there is another reading, biberat 
calicem Domim, " after he James had drunk the cup of the 
Lord," when the reference is evidently to the institution of the 
Eucharist : even in that case it is not certain that the writer 
considered James as one of the twelve although present on that 
occasion : he may have looked upon him as occup3ring a position, 
superior to the other apostles. But the reading Dominus is 
the better supported. 

We proceed to notice two objections urged against both 
the Helvidian, and the Epiphanian theories : one is, that in 
either case, the existence of two sets of first cousins is assumed, 
viz. the children of Joseph, and the children of Alphaeus; 
two in each set, James and Joses, bearing the same name. 
But in order to prove this it is necessary that the ordinary 
punctuation of John xix. 25. be adopted, and we have shown 
above that, that punctuation is most likely incorrect The 
other objection is that in (Mark xvi i ; Luke xxiv. 10) we read 
of Mary the mother of James. Is it not probable that the James 
here spoken of was the bishop of Jerusalem, and if so, as the 
Maiy could hardly be the Virgin, does it not follow that the 
Hieronymian theory is correct? But in one of these passages 
this woman had shortly before (Mark xv. 47.) been specified as 
mother of Joses^ so that it does not seem as if James were at all 
more famous than Joses, who was not famous at alL Thus 

her of these objections seems of much force. 

A/;^endix.] brethren of jesus. 85 

Which then is to be preferred the Epiphanian or the 
Helvidian theory? In favour of the latter, it may be urged that 
the term brethren, is then used in its correct signification. But 
is it not natural, that those who called Joseph our Lord's 
father, should call these persons His brethren, knowing as they 
did nothing about the facts of the Incarnation? There still 
remain the expressions used by S. Matt (L 25.) and S. Luke 
(iL 7). The former says that Joseph, * knew not his wife till she 
had brought forth her first-bom son ;' the latter also speaks of 
bringing forth * her first-bom son.* As far as the words * first- 
bom son ' are concemed, it may be replied that they only allude 
to the Mosaic law, and its well known enactments : with regard 
to the other and stronger expression, sometimes imderstood to 
imply, that after the birth of Jesus, Mary bore other children to 
Joseph, that may be quite as well explained, as pointing to the fact 
that the conception and birth of Christ, were entirely miraculous 
from beginning to end. In favour of the Epiphanian theoiy we 
may adduce the fact, that it was usually held in Palestine, where 
marriage was never despised, while against the Helvidian theory 
is the chaige of the dying Lord to S. John, to take care of His 
mother. Why if he had younger brothers alive, who though 
then unbelievers were soon to be converted, should he have 
consigned His parent to a stranger ? This is an objection to 
the Helvidian theoiy, which cannot be got over. One feature 
in the gospel narrative, that seems to favour the Epiphanian 
view, is that on this h3rpothesis we can easily explain the air 
of superior authority resulting fi"om age, with which our Lord's 
brethren address him, compare the passages quoted at the be- 
ginning. It should be added that this is the view best supported 
by patristic authority, as may be seen from the Catena in 

86 THE LAST SUPPER. [Appendix. 

The Difficulties connected with the Last Supper. 

Matt. xxvL 17 — 19 ; Mark xiv. 12 — 16 ; Luke xxii 7 — 18 ; 
John xiiL i, 2. 29 ; xviiL 28 ; xix. 14. 31. 

That out Lord was cracified on Friday ; lay in the grave 
on Saturday ; and rose again from the dead on Sunday ; may be 
considered certain, from the consent of the Church, the use of 
the word irapatrKtwi by the Greeks to denote Friday, and the 
habit the Jews, in common with other nations, had, of reckon- 
ing any number of days or years inclusively, so that the part 
at either end counted with them as one year or day. For 
instances of this, cf. Wieseler Chron Synopsis^ Chap. iL Sect i. 
p. 49. Venabie^ TranslaMoiu Hence although according to 
our way of reckoning, Christ only lay in the grave one whole 
day and parts of two others, yet, according to the Jewish way, 
he would be said to have lain there three days ; the portions of 
Friday and Sunday being each counted as one day. 

The real difficulty connected with the Last Supper, is not 
as to the day of the week on which it was celebrated : that 
must have been what we should call the evening of Thursday, 
and what the Jews, whose day began at sunset, would call the 
end of Thursday and the beginning of Friday : but as to the 
day of the month : was it the end of the 13th, and beginning of 
the 14th, Nisan (April) ? or was it the end of the 14th and the 
beginning of the 15th of the same month? In the former 
case, the meal was not a Passover ; our Lord was crucified on 
the 14th, lay in the grave during the whole of the 15th, and 
rose again on the i6th. In the latter case, the meal was a 
Passover; our Lord was crucified on the 15th, lay in the 
grave during the whole of the i6th, and rose again on the i7t}u 

The difficulty felt in deciding on this point, is caused by the 
difference in the language used by the Synoptists, and that 
used by S. John, when describing the Supper. The three first 
Evangelists speak of it in terms which at first sight read like 
the description of an actual Paschal supper. On the other 

Appendix,'] the last supper. 87 

hand, S. John almost as clearly speaks of it as an ordinary 
supper, and not the commemoration of the Passover. 

In trying to reconcile this, some have had recourse to the 
desperate hypothesis, that the calendar had fallen into con- 
fusion ; that Christ, and some of the Jews, ate the Passover at 
the true time, while the rest ate it one day too late — a sup- 
position which creates more difficulties than it removes. For 
how are we to explain the fact that this supposed error in the 
calendar is unnoticed by contemporary historians ? and when, 
if such an error existed, was it rectified, so as to allow of the 
feast being celebrated with unanimity ? In short, this h)rpothe- 
sis is based on assumptions which have no existence, except in 
the imagination of those who devised it 

Others have supposed, that the meal of John xiiL was a 
supper, eaten one or more days before the regular Passover 
described by the S)moptists. Some of those who hold this 
opinion, identify the meal with that in the house of Simon the 
leper (Matt xxvi. 6; Mark xiv. 3). This solution has this 
much advantage in it, that thus we can explain S. John's not 
recording the institution of the Eucharist^ by his not having 
noticed at all the occasion on which it was instituted. Against 
this it may be urged, that all four Evangelists place the dipping 
of the sop, the prophecies of Judas' treachery and Peter's 
denials, and the going out to the Mount of Olives, in close 
connexion with one another. Hence it seems certain, that 
the meal of John xiii. is the same as that described in the 
passages from Matthew, Mark, and Luke, placed at the head 
of this article. Thus since all four Evangelists speak of the 
same meal, ^at meal either was a Passover, or it was not 

In examinifig into the respective probability of these two 
alternatives, we shall, for the sake of brevity, and to avoid 
wearisome repetition, call the view taken by those who consider 
that this meal was actually a celebration of the Passover, the 
Passover theory; and the view taken by those who consider 
that it was only an ordinary supper, the Supper theory. 

In favour of the Passover theory, may be adduced the 

-,MHi< —ifi "ii r "■•;?■ 1. 'Bo, ■j—ab^J»au 3*^"^:. -^ 

88 THE LAST SUPPER. \Appendix 

language of the first three Evangelists generally, but more 
particularly that of S. Luke. The particular expressions on 
which the opinion rests, are the following : 

(tf) Matt xxvi 17. On the first day of imleavened 
bread, the disciples came to Jesus, sa)dng, Where wilt thou 
that we prepare for thee to eat the Passover? (jhid, 19.) And 
the disciples did as Jesus enjoined them, and prepared the 

(p) Mark xiv. 12. And on the first day of imleavened 
bread, when they used to kill the passover. His disciples say 
to Him : Where wilt thou that we go and prepare that thou 
mayest eat the Passover? (, 16). And His disciples went 
out, and went into the city, and found as He told them, and 
prepared the Passover. 

(^r) Luke xxii. 7. Now the day of unleavened bread 
came, on which it was requisite that the Passover should be 
sacrificed ; and He sent Peter and John, saying. Go and 
prepare us the Passover, that we may eat {jHd. 13). And 
they went off, and found as He had told them, and prepared 
the Passover. {p)icL 15). And He said to them : With desire 
did I desire to eat this Passover with you before I suffered. 
For I say unto you, that I shall not [any more] eat of it until 
it has been completed in the kingdom of God. 

The supporters of the supper theory mainly rest on. the 
language used by S. John : 

(d) xiiL I, 2. ^^ Before the feast of the Passover." 

{i) xiiL 29. ^* Buy those things that we have need of, 
against the feast" 

(/) xviiL 28. "They themselves went not into the 
judgment-hall, lest they should be defiled, but that they might 
eat the Passover." 

{£) The expressions, "The preparation of the Passover " 
(xix. 14), and "That Sabbath-day was a high day" (xix. 31). 

By the supporters of each theory, the force of the passages 
adduced on behalf of the opposite theory is explained away. 
Those who support the Supper theory, explain away the force 
of passages a^ b, and c, in the following way. 

Appendix.'l the last supper. 89 

The language in {a) and {b) is so very similar, that they 
may be considered together. — ^The expression, "first day of 
unleavened bread," seems to the supporters of the Passover 
theory, to denote inevitably the day on which the Paschal lamb 
was slain, according to the natural reckoning ; in other words, 
they think that the question must have been put shortly before 
the lambs were slain in the Temple court. Those who adopt 
the Supper theory, maintain that the question was asked about 
sunset on the 13th (Jewish reckoning), when the first day of 
the feast would be regarded as already beginning. In sup- 
port of this, they adduce the habit which the Galileans had 
of leaving oflf work, and considering the festival to begin at 
sunset of the 13th, though the other Jews did not cease work 
till noon of the 14th. Hence, they argue, taking due account 
of Jewish ways of reckoning, it was not unnatural, that S. Mark 
should speak of the day which began after sunset of the 13 th, 
as the regular {ot€ tOvov) day for killing the Passover. Fiuther 
in support of this meal not being the Passover, it is argued 
that ^'^preparation for it was a worTt of much time, and might 
well include the arrangements for sacrificing the lambs on 
what we call the next — ^what the Jews call the latter part of the 
same — day. Wratislaw {Notes and Dissertations y p. 188), 
quotes a custom of consecrating the dough on the Eve of 
Preparation-day ; and (p. 186) a habit the Jews had, of holding 
a service every Friday evening, in anticipation of the coming 
Sabbath. The Friday evening in this case would be occupied 
with the regular Paschal meal, and it is not improbable, he 
thinks, that this was a service intended to take the place of the 
regular Friday evening one. 

Against the force of (c) it is urged. — If fair grounds have 
been already brought forward, for supposing that it was usual 
to hold a service on the eve of Preparation-day ; and that the 
preparation included a good many arrangements, the expressions 
" Go prepare us the Passover," and the like, are sufficiently 
accounted for. There remains the strong language of ver. 15, 
which is probably the expression, on the part of our Lord, of 


90 THE LAST SUPPER. \Appendix. 

an unfulfilled wish, alluding to the Paschal lamb arranged and 
prepared for, but not to be partaken of by Him. If so, His 
conduct in the garden, when He prayed that the cup might 
pass from Him, is similar. There also remains the word 
oviem in ver. i6. For the Passover theory, the insertion of this 
word is almost indispensable to complete the sense. If, how- 
ever, it be omitted, there is nothing in the verse to militate 
against the Supper theory, but in that case, the expressions 
used rather favour it And that there are good reasons for 
omitting it, will be seen, when we mention that Codd. Sinaiti- 
cus, A. B. C (?). L., foiu* or five of the best uncials, do not 
contain the word, and that it is marked as doubtful by Lach- 
mann, and Tregelles, and left out entirely by Alford. 

On the other hand, the language of S. John is, by the 
supporters of the Passover theory, explained away with equal 
ingenuity, as follows : — 

On (d) they remark : — If these words are to be at all 
connected with "supper being ended," in ver. 2, the inevi- 
table conclusion is, that this was not the celebration of the 
Passover. But many deny that the words need be so connected, 
and regard the first verse as complete in itself, paraphrasing it 
by : " Before the Passover, in the prospect of His departure, 
the Saviour's love was actively called forth towards His 
followers, and He gave proof of His love to the last ; " and 
refer it to the washing of the disciples' feet by Christ 

With regard to (^) they argue thus. — ^This passage is by 
some considered as a proof that the Passover had not yet 
begun ; by others, as referring to what was required for the 
Chagigah — z. voluntary peace-oflfering usually made on the 
15th, then, in their opinion, just beginning — or " those things" 
might be what was necessary for keeping the seven days of 
unleavened bread ; in either case, the Passover had, they 
think, already begim. 

The strong language in (/) is also used by one side, to 
prove that the Passover was yet to be celebrated ; by the 
other, it is explained as referring to the Chagigah, or as 
meaning, " that they might go on keeping the Passover." 

Appendix.'] the last supper. 91 

As to the expressions in (^), the supporters of the Supper 
theory maintain that the words " The preparation of the Pass- 
over," can refer to nothing else but the time immediately 
preceding the killing of the lambs; and the words, "That 
Sabbath day was a high day," to the fact that the day of the 
Paschal feast, and the weekly Sabbath, this year coincided. 
The supporters of the Passover theory explain the former 
expression, as " the Preparation of the Sabbath which fell in 
Passover week :" and the latter as applied to that Sabbath, 
because it was the day on which the Omer, or sheaf, was 

Arguments drawn from what may be reiasonably supposed 
to have been usual, or unusual, are freely adduced. Those 
supporting the supper theory, maintain that if the meal were 
really a Passover, then Judas was permitted by our Lord to 
violate the Mosaic enactment that " none should go out of his 
doors till the morning ;" that it is imlikely that Jesus would 
have been tried and crucified on the 15th, the day of holy 
convocation (Exod. xiL 16. 18) ; or that ordinary business 
would have been going on, as we see it was from the fact that 
Simon was coming from his work, the condemned were taken 
down from the cross, and spices were prepared ; all which 
would have been illegal, and impossible on the 15th. To this 
it is replied, that the Jews would not, at this time, hesitate to 
carry arms, and apprehend a prisoner, on a solemn feast day ; 
for we find them (John viL 32 — 45) sending out officers to 
capture our Lord at the feast of Tabernacles, and rebuking 
them for not bringing Him. S. Peter also was seized during 
the Passover (Acts xii. 3, 4). 

Further, Wratislaw, in the work above quoted, adduces the 
well-known fact, that the Eastern Church lays great stress on 
the use of leavened bread at the celebration of the Eucharist 
Now if at the Last Supper leavened bread were used, it cannot 
have been the Paschal supper, for before that all leaven had 
been scrupulously removed. He also quotes a catena of 
passages from the works of Hippolytus. bp. of Portus, 

92 STATE OF THE TEXT. [Appendix. 

Apollinarius of Hierapolis, Clement of Alexandria, and 
Justin Martyr ; all of them fathers who lived before the end 
of the third centuiy; in all of which a distinction is clearly 
made between the Last Supper and the Passover. 

In the above remarks, I have given the leading arguments 
brought forward on each side, with as much impartiality as 
possible, as I consider the question to be one on which, 
though well worthy of discussion, it is yet extremely difficult to 
form a firm and lasting decision. The remarks of Wratislaw, 
the able advocate of the Supper theory, should certainly be 
consulted. The Passover theory is maintained with equal 
ability in the article in the Dictionary of the Bible, sub verba. 
Alford's remarks do not seem to me satisfactory. He appears 
tb consider this a case in which it is hopeless to try and arrive 
at any definite results. 

On the state of the text in the verses following 

t^XipowTO yap. 

Mark xvL 9 — 20. 

In reviewing this passage we shall, under* each particular 
head give the evidence both for and against it 

External Evidence. 

Manuscripts. The passage is omitted by Cod. Sinaiticus, 
whose scribe finishes S. Mark's Gospel near the top of one 
column, and begins S. Luke's at the top of the next, without 
giving any signs that he was acquainted with the existence of 
the passage; by B, in which however, the scribe gives signs of 
acquaintance with the passage, for after closing with ver. 8, he 
leaves not only the remainder of that column blank, as is usual 
at the end of every book, but also the whole of the next 
column — the only instance in the whole MS. of one entire 
column being left free from writing. On the other hand, the 
passage is found in A. C. D., and all later uncials. It must 
however be observed, that in several of these, the numbers 

Appendix,] STATE OF THE TEXT. 93 

marking the divisions of the paragraphs, are not carried further 
than the end of ver. 8, and that L, an uncial of the eighth 
century, having a great resemblance to B, after giving a 
different and apocryphal ending, goes on to say, "There are 
extant also the following words after e^/3ovvro yap* ^Avaaras bi 
fTpal npcvrjj (ra/3/3arov, ic r. X. thus giving the usual verses 9 — 20. 
Of known cursive MSS. some end at ver. 8, adding however, 
"but in many copies there follows this," giving vers. 9 — 12 ; 
others contain the disputed passage, but mark it with an 
asterisk, or observe that "the passage is wanting in some 
copies, but in the old copies nothing is omitted."- Two give 
evidence in favour of the passage, to the following effect : — 
*^ In very many copies these verses are wanting in this gospel, 
because they thought them spurious ; but we, finding them in 
many of the accurate copies j and in the Palestinian Gospel 
finding that the genuine Mark has them, have added the Resur- 
rection of the Lord contained in it" 

Versions. The passage is found in the Peshito, Curetonian, 
and Jerusalem Syriac; in the Memphitic, iEthiopic, Gothic, 
Vulgate, all mss. of the Old Latin, except ky and in all later 
versions. The text of the Philoxenian Syriac contains the 
verses ; in the margin there is a translation of the apocryphal 
ending found in L Cod. k. of the Old Latin, has a curious 
Latin rendering of the same words. The passage is omitted by 
some old Armenian mss., and by an Arabic Lectionaiy of 
the ninth century. 

Fathers, The passage is quoted by Irenaeus, and probably 
by Justin Martyr, of the second century ; by Hippolytus, and 
perhaps by Celsus, of the third; by Cyril of Jerusalem, 
Ambrose, and Augustine, in the fourth. Eusebius objects to 
the verses on account of their not harmonizing with the rest of 
the Gospel narrative, and says that they are not found in " the 
accurate copies :" Jerome, speaking very loosely, says, that 
" hardly . any Greek book contains this . section." Gregory 
Nyssen, and Victor of Antioch, consider the verses spurious. 
Euthymius notices that some thought them an addition. 

94 STATE OF THE TEXT. [Appendix, 

Internal Evidence. 

The beginning of the passage is abrupt, and not connected 
with what immediately precedes. Mary Magdalene has been 
already named (ver. i), and yet is particularized (ver. 9), as 
one ^^out of whom He had cast seven deznlsJ' In ver. 9, we 
read that ^^ He appeared first to Mary Magdalene/* and in 
ver. 13, and they went and told it unto the residue (of the 
Apostles) ; neither believed they them : neither of these state- 
ments, though possibly capable of reconciliation, accord at first 
sight with the words of the other Gospels. Difficulties of this 
kind, ought, if canons of criticism are to have any weight, to 
tell in favour of the genuineness of the passage. Arguments 
rested on the rare words and expressions, do not go for much ; 
as by the same process, it is vainly attempted to prove that 
the Pastoral epistles were not written by S. PauL 

The following words and expressions, are specified as not 
found elsewhere in S. Mark : it must however be remembered 
that most of the single words are very rarely found in any other 
part of the New Testament 



yXo(r<rcuff koohm XoXcty, 



fjitra TovTOf 

li<f)€is atpeiVy 






It must also be confessed, that the general tone of the 
passage differs very much fi-om the rest of the Gospel The 
latter is minute and diffuse ; while these verses contain little 
more than a series of unconnected notices very much abridged. 
Still, in the face of the mass of evidence adduced, it is hardly 
possible not to conclude that the passage is from S. Mark's 
pen — a later addition, very possibly, as is the case with the 
last chapter of S. John's Gospel ; but if not genuine, how is it 
that we have not an early and continuous chain of patristic 

Appendix,'] chronology of the gospel narrative. 95 

quotations doubting whether S. Mark were the author, as is 
the case with the Epistle to the Hebrews? In short if it were 
not for the decisive testimony of Cod. Sinaiticus the 
genuineness and authenticity of the passage would hardly be 
doubted : still even an authority of the very highest character, 
cannot be allowed to outweigh by itself all the evidence that 
may be thrown into the opposite scale. 

On the Chronology of the Gospel Narrative. 

That according to the usual system of chronology, the birth 
of Christ is placed some years too late, is admitted by all who 
have studied the subject : and may be proved in the following 
way. Christ was evidently bom at the close of Herod's reign ; 
now Josephus tells us that Herod died in the 37th year after he 
had been appointed king by Roman influence. This appoint- 
ment is known to have taken place in the year of Rome 714 : 
and the different results at which writers on the subject have 
arrived, have arisen in part from the different modes of com- 
puting these 37 years adopted by them. Evidently if we add 
37 full years to 714 a. u. c we get 751 a. u. a as the year of 
Herod's death. But it is probable that Josephus reckons, 
according to the Jewish mode already mentioned and counts as 
37 years, what we should call 35 years and portions of two 
others, this brings us to February, 750 a. u. c or 4 b. a as the 
year of our Lord's birth, and this is the opinion adopted by 
Wieseler, and by very many of those who have since studied the 
question. If so, this makes the ordinary reckoning 4 years.too 
late throughout, ue. on this hypothesis our Lord was baptized in 
the spring or summer of 27 a. d. and crucified in April, 30 a. d. 
By reference to the following table the relative position, of any 
event of importance can at once be ascertained. It has been 
adopted as avoiding certain peculiarities, which render Wieseler's 
valuable work somewhat less satisfactory than it otherwise 
might be. 



(Taken firom Tischendorfs Synopsis Evangdka,) 

S. John's prologue on the Word, yohn i. i — 18. 

S. Luke's pre&ce to Theophilus, Ltike i. i — ^4. 

The Genealogies, Matt. L i — 17 ; Luke iiL 23 — ^38. 

The Angel appears to Zacharias, Luke i. 5 — 25. 

The Annunciation of the Virgin Mary, Luke i. 26 — 38. 

The Interview between Mary and Elizabeth, Luke i. 3^—56. 

The Birth of John the Baptist, ib. 57—80. 

Joseph's Vision, Matt. i. 18—25. 

The Nativity and Circumcision, Luke ii. I — 21. 

The Presentation in the Temple, ib, 22 — 38. 

The Adoration of the Magi, Flight into Egypt and Massacre of the Innocents, 
Matt, ii. I — 18. 

Joseph and Mary return from Egypt, Matt, ii. 19 — 23, and settle at Naza- 
reth, Luke ii. 39, 4a 

Jesus at 12 years old disputes with the Doctors. Luke iL 41 — 52. 

The Preaching of the Forerunner, Matt, iil i — 12 ; Mark i. i — 8 ; Luke 

iii. I— 18. 
The Baptism, Matt. iii. 13 — 17 ; Mark i. 9 — ii ; Luke iii. 21, 22. 
The Temptation, Matt. iv. i — 11 ; Mark i. 12, 13 ; Luke'vf. i — 13. 
John the Baptist's Testimonies to Christ, John i. 19 — ^34. 
S. Andrew and probably S. John go to Jesus, John i. 35 — ^42. 
Jesus summons Philip and Nathanael, John i. 43 — 51. 
The Marriage at Cana, John ii. i — 12. 
Jesus clears the Temple, John ii. 13 — 25. 
The Conversation with Nicodemus, John iii. i — ^21. 
Testimony borne to Jesus while baptizing by the Baptist, John iii. 22 — 36. 
John is Imprisoned, Matt, xiv. 3 — 5 ; Markvi. 17 — 20; Luke iii. 19, 20. 
On John's Imprisonment Jesus goes into Galilee, Matt. iv. 12 ; Mark i. 14 ; 

Luke iv. 14 ; yi?An iv. I — 3. 
Conversation with the Woman of Samaria, ybkn iv. 4 — ^42. 
Cure of the Nobleman's Son, yi?kn iv. 43 — 54. 

Impotent Man at the Pool of Bethesda, ybkn v. i — ^47. 

Tesus Preaches in Galilee, Matt. iv. 17 ; Mark i. 15 ; Luke iv. 15. 

Appendixi\ chief events of the gospel narrative. 97 

He teaches in the Synagogue at Nasareth and is driven out, Luke iv. 16— 3a 
He goes to dwell at Capernaum, Matt, iv. 13 — 16 ; Luke iv. 31. 
Four Disciples are called. Matt* iv. 18—22 ; Mark i. i6—20 ; and prob- 
ably Z«^ v. I — II. 
Healing of a Demoniac at Capernaum, Mark L 21 — ^28 ; Luke iv. 31 — ^37. 
■ Peter's wife's mother and others, Matt, viiL 14 — 17; Mark 

L 29—34 ; Luke iv. 38—41. 
Journey through Galilee, Matt, iv. 23 ; Mark i, 35 — 39 ; Luke iv. 42 — 44. 
Cure of a Leper, Matt, viu. I — 4 ; Mark i, 40—45 ; Luke v. 12 — 16. 

Paralytic, Matt, ix. 1—8 ; Mark ii. 1—12 ; Luke v. 17—26. 

Call of Matthew, Matt, ix. 9—17 ; Mark ii. 13 — ^22 ; Lukev, 27 — ^39. 
The Disciples pluck the ears of com, Matt, xii. I — 8 ; Mark ii. 23 — ^28 ; 

Zii^vi. I — 5. 
Cure of the man with a withered hand ; Matt, xiL 9 — 14 ; Mark iii. I — 6 ; 

Lukevi, 6 — II. 
Call of the twelve Apostles, {Matt, x, 2—4) ; Mark iil 7—19 ; Luke vi. 

12 — 19. 
Sermon on the Mount, Matt, v. I — ^vii. 29 5 Luke vL 20—49. 
Cure of the Centurion's Servant, Matt. viii. 5 — 13 ; Zi^viL I — la 
The son of the widow of Nain restored to life, Luke vii. 1 1 — 17« 
John, while in prison sends messengers to Jesus, Matt, xi. 2 — 19 ; Luke 

vii. 18—35. 
Jesus' feet washed in Simon the Pharisee's house by a woman which was a 

sinner, Luke yn, 36 — 50. 
Journey through Galilee with the Twelve, Luke viiL i — ^3. 
Jesus repels the calumnies of the Pharisees after curing a Demoniac, Matt* 

xii. 22 — ^37 J Mark iii. 19 — ^30 ; {Luke xi. 17 — ^26. 43—45). 
He is interrupted by His mother and brethren. Matt, xu. 46 — ^50 ; Mark 

iii. 31 — 35 ; Luke yiii. 19 — 21. 
Parable of the Sower, Matt, xiii. i — ^23 ; Markiv, I — ^25 ; Zf^viiL 4 — 18. 
Various Parables, Matt. xiii. 24 — 53 ; Mark iv. 26—34 ; Zii^xiii. 18 — 21. 
Stilling of the Tempest, Matt, viii. 23 — 27 ; Mark iv. 35 — 41 ; Luke viii. 

Cure of the Demoniacs in the country of the Gerasenes (Gadarenes), Matt, 

viii. 28 — 34 ; Mark v. I — 20 ; Luke\m, 26 — 39. 
Raising from the Dead of Jairus' daughter, and cure of the woman with an 

issue of blood. Matt, ix. 18 — 26 ; Mark v. 21—43 > Lukeyin, 40—56. 
Jesus again teaches in the synagogue at Nazareth, Matt, xiii. 54—58 ; 

Markyi, i — 5. 
— while teaching in Galilee feels compassion for the people, Matt, ix. 

35 — 38 ; Mark vi. 6. 
Mission of the Twelve, Matt, x. i. 5—15 ; Markwi. 7—13; Lukeix, 1—6. 
John the Baptist is put to death by Herod, Matt. xiv. 6—12 ; Mark vi. 

21 — 29. 



Herod's conversation with his servants about Jesus, Matt» xiv. i, 2 ; Mark 

vi. 14 — 16 ; Luke ix. 7 — 9. . 
Return of the Twelve, and feeding of 5000, Matt. xiv. 13—21 ; Mark vi. 

30—44 ; Lukeix. 10—17 5 7*^^^ vi. I — 14. 
Jesus walks on the sea. Matt. xiv. 22 — ^33 ; Mark vi. 45 — ^52 ; yhku vi. 

Miracles in the land of Genessareth, Matt, xiv. 34 — ^36 ; Mark yi. 53 — ^56. 

Discourse about the bread of life, yifkn vi. 22 — 65. 

The Pharisees blame the disciples for eating with unwashen hands. Matt. 

XV. I — ^20 ; Mark viL I — ^23. 
Healing of the Daughter of the Canaanitish Woman, Matt, xv. 21 — 28 ; 

Mark vii. 24 — 3a 
Cure of the man who was Deaf and had an Impediment in his Speech, and 

of others, Matt, xv. 29—31 ; Mark yii, 31 — 37. 
Feeding of the Four Thousand, Matt, xv. 32 — 38 ; Mark viii. I — 9. 
A Sign from heaven is demanded, Matt. xv. 39 — ^xvi. 4 ; Mark viii. 10 — 12. 
Warning to beware of the Leaven of the Pharisees, Matt, xvi. 5 — 12 ; Mark 

viiL 13—21. 
Cure of the blind man at Bethsaida, Mark viii. 22 — 26, 
Peter's Confession ; Christ's Prediction of His sufferings, Matt. xvi. 13 — 28 ; 

Mark viii. 27 — ix. i ; Luke ix. 18 — 27 ; JlpAn vi, 66 — 71. 
The Transfiguration, Matt, xviL i — 13 ; Mark ix. 2 — 13 ; Luke ix. 28 — ^36. 
Cure of the Lunatic, Matt, xvii. 14—21 ; Markix, 14—29 ; Luke ix. 37—45. 
Payment of the Tribute with a coin from a fish, Matt. xviL 24—27 ; 
An Infant set in the midst to rebuke the Disciples' Dispute, and other 

Discourses, Matt, xviii. I — 35 ; Mark ix. 33—50 ; Luke ix. 46—50 ; 

and xviL i — 3. 
Jesus and His brethren go up to keep the Feast of Tabernacles, John vii. 

I — 10 : while passing through Samaria He is badly received, Luke 

ix. 51—56. 
New disciples join Him on the road. Matt, viii. 19—22 ; Luke ix. 57—62. 
Jesus appears publickly in the midst of the Feast, yhkn vii. 1 1—36. 
Discourse about the Holy Spirit ; the opinions of others, yhkn viL 37—53. 
Interview with the woman taken in adultery, viii. I — 1 1. 
Discourse with Ae Jews in the Temple, yokn viii. 12 — 59. 
Cure of the man bom blind, yoku ix. i — 41. 
Jesus declares Himself to be the Good Shepherd, ^dAh x. i — 21. 
Mission of the Seventy, Lukeiu i — 24. 
Parable of the Good Samaritan, Luke x. 25 — ^37. 
Jesus in Martha's house at Bethany, Luke x. 38 — ^42. 
Jesus teaches the Disciples to pray, Lukexi, i — 13 {Matt, vi. 9—13). 
Cure of two blind men, Matt. ix. 27 — 31. 
— ' — *- the Dumb Man that had a devil, Matt. ix. 32 — 34 ; Lukexi. 14 — 16. 

AppendixJ] chief events of the gospel narrative. 99 

The Rebuke to the Pharisees that followed, Matt, xii. 43—45 5 ^«^ *»- 

17 — 26. 
Reply to the Woman of the Company, Luke xi. 27, 28. 
Repulse of those seeking a sign from heaven. Matt. xii. 38 — ^42 ; Zf«^^ xt. . 

Denunciation of the Pharisees, Luke xi. 37 — 54. 
Discourse concerning sin against the Holy Ghost, Luke xii. i — 12. 
Refuses to Divide the Inheritance, iMke xii. 13 — 21. 
Various discourses, Luke xiL 22 — xiii. 9. 
Healing of a Woman on the Sabbath, Luke xiiL 10 — 17. 
Parables concerning the Kingdom of Heaven, Matt, xiii. 31 — ^33 ; Mark iv. 

30 — 32; Lukeidii, 18 — 21. 
The Feast of the Dedication, John x. 22 — 39. 
Withdrawal beyond Jordan, John x. 40 — ^42. 

Answer to the question : Lord are there few that be saved ? Luke xiii. 22 — ^30.. 
Herod's snares. Lamentation over Jerusalem, Luke xiii. 31 — 35. 
Cure of a Dropsical. Man in the house of one of the chief Pharisees, and. 

Parable of the Great Supper, lAike xiv. i — 24. 
Discourse on the Duty of His followers, Luke xiv. 25 — 35. 
Various parables, iMke xv. I — ^xvi 31. 
Dbcourse to the disciples, Luke xviL i — 10. 
Raising of Lazarus from the Dead, John xi. I — ^46. 
Jesus withdraws to Ephraim to avoid the Pharisees, jfohn xL 47 — 54. 
The last journey to Jerusalem, Matt, xix. I, 2 ; Mark x. i ; Luke xvii. 1 1. 
Cure of the Ten Lepers, Luke xvii 12 — 19. 
Discourse concerning the second advent, Luke xvii. 20-7-37 (Matt, xxiv. 

23 — ^28 and 37 — ^41 ; Mark xiii. 21 — 23.) 
Parable of the Unjust Judge, and of the Pharisee and Publican, Luke 

xviii. I — 14. 
Answer to a question concerning Divorce, Matt, xix. 3 — 12 ; Mark x. 2 — 12. 
Reception of the Infants, Matt, xix. 13 — 15 ; Mark x. 13 — 16 ; Luke 

xviii. 15 — 17. 
Discourse with a Rich Young Man, Matt, xix. 16 — ^30; Mark x. 17 — ^31 ; 

Zi«>^^ xviii. 18 — 30. 
Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard, Matt, xx. 1—16. 
Prophecy of the Passion on the way, Matt, xx. 17 — 19 ; Mark x. 32—34 ; 

Z«^xviiL 31 — ^34. 
Request of the sons of Zebedee, Matt, xx. 20 — 28 ; Mark x. 35 — 45. 
Cure of two Blind Men at Jericho, Matt, xx. 29 — ^34 ; Mark x. 46—52 ; 

Luke xviii. 35—43. 
Interview with Zacchaeus, Luke xix. i — 10. 
Parable of the Pounds, Matt, xxv. 14—30 ; Lu^rSx. 11—28. 
The anointing by Mary, Matt, xxvi. 6—13 ; Mark xiv. 3—9 ; Jbkn xii. 

I— II. 


Triumphal entry, Matt. xxL l— il ; Mark zL I— ll ; Luke xiz. 29—44.; 

Jokn jdi. 12—19. 
Cnrsing of the Fig-tree, Matt, xzL i&«-22 ; Mark zi 12^14. 
Clearing of the Temple, Matt, xxi. 12—17 i Mark zL 15—19 ; Luke ziz« 

Discourse about the Withered Fig-tree, Matt, xxi. ao—22 ; Mark xi. 20—26. 

Question conoeming John the Baptist, MaU, xxi. 25—27 ; Mark xL 27—33 1 

LukexjL I— 8. 

Parable of the Two Sons sent to the Vineyard, MaU, xxi. 28—32. 

■ Husbandmen and the Vineyard, Matt, xxL 33—46 ; Mark 

xii. I— 12 ; Luke xx. 9—19. 

Marriage Supper of the king. Matt, xxii. I — 14. 

Question about the Tribute, Matt, xxii. 15—22; Markxi^, 13—17 ; I^f^ 

XX. 20 — 26. 
— — — — Woman whom Seven Brethren Married, Matt, xxiL 

23—33 f Mark xii. i8->27 ; Luke xx. 27—39. 

great Commandment of the Law, Matt, xxii. 34— 4^ » 

Mark xii. 28—34. 
Jesus puts a Question about Mesaah the son of David, Matt. xxii. 41—46 ; 

Mark xii. 35—37 ; Luke xx. 41—44. 
Denunciation of the Pharisees and Lawyers, Matt, xxiii. 1—39 ; Mark xiL 

38—40; Lukeui. 45—47. 
The Widow's Mite, Mark xii. 41—44 ; Luke xxi. 1—4. 
The Greeks request an interview ; the Voice from Heaven, y^kn xii. 20—36. 
Discourse about His own Divinity, Jokn xii. 37 — 50. 
Prophecies aboi4 the Destruction of Jerusalem and the End of the World, 

Matt, xxiv. and xxv ; Mark xiii ; Luke xxL 5 — ^36. 
Deliberations of the Priests as to putting Jesus to Death, Matt, xxvi. I— -5 ; 

Mark xiv. i, 2 ; Luke xxii. i, 2. 
Judas Iscariot's bargain with the Priests, Matt, xxvi. 14 — 16 ; Mark xiv. 

10^ H ; Lukexai. 3—6. 
Jesus orders the Last Supper to be prepared, Matt, xxvi. 17-^19 ; Mark 

xiv, 12—16 ; LukerxL 7— 13« 
The Supper— Jesus washes the Disciples* Feet— foretells His Betrayal and 

Institutes the Eucharist, Matt, xxvi. 20—29 ; Mark xiv. 17—25 ; 

Luke-EoL 14—23 ; yokn xiiL 1—35 (also c£ I Cor. xL 23—25.) 
Prophecy of the Dispersion of the Twelve and the Fall of Peter, Matt, xxvi. 

31—35 ; Mark xiv. 27—31 ; Lukexxn. 31— 38 ; y^kn xiii. 36—38. 
Discourse about the Comforter— the Vine and the Branches, yakn xiv. i— 

xvL 33. 
The High PriesUy Prayer, yifkn xviL 1—26. 
The Agony, MaU, xxvi. 36—46 ; Mark xiv. 32—42 ; Luke tboL 40-^6 ; 

{yifkn xviii. I.) 
"Hie Capture, Matt, xxvi. 47—56 ; Mark xiv. 43—52 ; Lttke xxiL 47—53 ; 

^ii» xviii. 2— II. 

A^f^pendixJ] chief events of the gospel narrative. ioi 

The hearing before the Jewish Authorities. The Denials, Matt. xxvi. 57— 

75 ; MarJk xiv. 53 — 72 ; Zu^s xxii. 54—62 ; ^ifAn 3cviii. 12 — 18, 

Sentence of the Jews. The Mocking, ZuJie xxii. 63—71 ; JoAn xviii. 

Jesiis is delivered to Pilate, Matt, xxvii. I, 2 ; Mark xv. I ; Luke xxiii. X ; 

Jokn xviii. 28. 
Judas kiUs himself, Matt, xxvii. 3 — 10. 
Jesus is accused before Pilate, Matt, xxvii. 1 1— 14 ; Mark xv. 2 — 5 > Luke 

xxiii. 2 — 5 ; ^ifkn xviii. 29 — 37. 
Jesus before Herod, Luke xxiii. 6^12. 
Pilate endeavours to release Jesus, Matt, xxvii. 15 — 23 ; Mark xv. 6 — 14 ; 

Luke xxiii. 13 — 23 ; yhkn xviii. 38 — 4a 
Jesus is delivered to be Crucified, Matt, xxvii. 24—34 ; Mark xv. 15—^3 ; 

Lukeiadii. 24 — 33 ; ^dAh xix. I — 17. 
The Crucifixion, Matt, xxvii. 35—44; Mark xv. 24^-32; Luke xxiii. 

34—38 ; yifkn xix. 18—27. 
The Death and attendant wonders. Matt, xxvii. 45 — 56 ; Mark xv. 33—41 ; 

Luke xxiii. 44—49 ; JoAn xix. 28 — ^30. 
The Piercing of His side, Jokn xix. 31 — 37. 
The Burial, Matt, xxvii. 57— 6i ; Mark xv. 42—47 ; Luke xxiii. 50—56 ; 

yifkn xix. 38—42. 
A Guard stationed at the tomb. Matt, xxvii. 62 — 66. 
The "Women find the stone rolled away. Matt, xxviii. 1—4 ; Markxvi. 1—4; 

Luke xxiv. 1—3 ; Jokn xx. i. 
The Angels address the Women, Matt, xxviii. 5—7 ; Mark xvi. 5 — 7 ; Luke 

xxiv. 4 — 8. 
The Women tell the news to the Eleven, Matt, xxviii. 8 ; Mark xvi. 8 ; 

Luke xxiv. 9 — II ; Jokn xx. 2i 
Peter and John visit the Tomb, Jokn xx. 3^10 ; {LukeToay, 12). 
Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene, Matt, xxviii. 9, 10 ; {Mark xvi. 9 — 11); 

Ji'iw XX. II— 18. 
Thfe Guards flee and are bribed, MaU. xxviii. ii— 15. 
Jesus appears to the two on the way to Emmaus, Luke xxiv. 13 — 35 ; 

{Mark xvi. 12, 13). 
Disciples when Thomas is absent, Luke xxiv. 36 — 43 ; 

yifkn XX. 19 — ^25 ; {Mark xvL 14). 

Disciples when Thomas is present, JokH xx. 26—29. 

Jesus appears to Seven Disciples at the Lake of Tiberias, Jakn xxL i — ^24. 
' to the Disciples on a Mountain in Galilee, Matt, xxviii. 16— 

20 5 Mark xvi. 15—18. 
Jesus blesses the Disciples on the Mount of Olives, and ascends into heaven, 

{Mark xvi. 19, 20) ; Luke xxiv. 44—53 ; Acts L 4—12. 
S. John's conclusions, JbAn xx. 30, 31 ; xxL 25. 











Where mentioned, 
Greek Coins. 

{Er^ish reckoning, \ 

In the account of the poor widow hatf-quadjcans. 
who cast into the treasury two mites, 
Mark xii. 42 ; Luke xxi. 2, and in 
the warning, Thou shalt not depart 
thence till thou ha^ paid the very IcLst 
mite, Luke xii. 59. in all three pas- 
sages translated by mite. 

In the parable of the woman and 
the \os\. piece of silvery Luke xv. 8, 9. 

The contribution to support the 
Temple which Peter wished Christ about fifteen-pence, 
to pay, Matt, xvii. 24, translated by 
trumte or tribute money. 

The coin found by Peter in the 
fish, Matt, xvii. 27 : translated by 
a piece of money, 

Roman Coins. 

same as a Roman 
denarius, about %d. 

same- as the Hebrew 
shekel, i, e, '4 drach- 
mas, about is, 6d, 

The Sermon on the Mount, Thou one-fourth of an as. 
shalt by no means come out thence till 
thou hast paid the uttermost farthings 
Matt. v. 26. and Mark xii. 42. as 
above: each time rendered y2i;i^^';a^. 

Are not two sparrows sold for a The Roman as. 
farthing? Matt. x. 29. and. Are not 
five sparrows sold for two farthings f 
Luke xii. 6. 




Wheri mentioned. Value 

{English reckoning,) 

Parable of the servant to whom Nearly the same as the 
his fellow servant owed 100 pence, dracnma, about ^}iid. 
Matt, xviil 28. 

Parable of the householder and 
labourers, Matt. xx. 2 — 13. 

Feeding of the 5,000, Mark vi. 

37 ; 5^^« vi- 7- 

Parable of the creditor and two 

debtors, Luke viL 41. 

Parable of the Good Samaritan, 
Luke in, 35. 

Question about the legality of 
paying tribute to Caesar, Matt, xxii. 
19 ; Mark xii. 15 ; Luke xx. 24. 

Judas' complaint about wasting 
the ointment, Mark xiv. 5 ; John 
xii. 5. 

Always rendered hy penny. 


Sums of Money. 

Parable of the Pounds^ Luke xix. a hundred drachmas. 


Parable of the king reckoning sixty minae. 

with his servants, Matt, xviii. 24. 

Parable of the Talents, . il/a//. 
XXV. 15 — 28, 





Measures of Capacity. 

Parabk of the Leaven, Matt, 
xiii. 33 ; Luke xiiL 21. Translated 
by measure. 

Parable of the unjust steward, 
A hundred measures of oU^ Luke 
xvi. 6. 

A hundred measures of wheats 
Luke xvi. 7. 

About a peck and a 

Josephus (Antiq, viii. 
II. 9.) saprs. Now, 
the bath will contain 
72 sextarii, /'. e, near- 
ly 9 gallons. 

stated by Josephus 
{Antiq, XV. 9. 2.) to 
be equivalent to 10 
Attic medimni, 1. e, 
15 bushels nearly. 


Miracle of the water turned into About 9 gallons, 
wine, jfohn ii. 6. containing two or 
three firkins a piece. 





When mitUtameeU Value 

Roman, {English reckoning,) 

Rendered hy pais, Mark vii. 4, 8. Not quite a pint. 

Neither do men light a candle and About sixteen sextarii, 
put it under a buskd. Matt v. 15. /. e, nearly a peck. 

Is a eandle brought to be put under 
a bushel? Mark iv. 21. 

No man when he hath lighted a 
candle putteth it in a secret place^ 
neither under a bushel^ Luke xi. 33. 

Measures op Length. 


opoppdrov 68^ Within the limits of the Gospel 2,CX)0 paces, about 

narrative, although not in the four furlongs. 
Gospels (Acts i. 12). 

Btit they Tvent a da^s journey^ From 16 to 20 miles. 

and they sought Him amongst their 
kinjfolk and acquaintance^ Luke 
ii. 44. 



vrdSios or ov 



Which of you by taking thought About 18 inches. 
can add one cubit unto his stature? 
Matt. vi. 27 ; Luke xii. 25. 

And the otlier disciples came in a 
little ship ;for they were not far from 
land but as it were 200 cubits, &»e, 
John xxi. 8. 

Crossing the lake after feeding the 
5000, y^hn vi. 19. 

Raising of Lazarus, yohn xi. i8. 

Walk to Enmiaus, Luhe xxiv. 13. 
Always translated y«r/<7«^. 

And whosoever shall compel thee 
to go a milcy go with him tzvain^ 
Matt. V. 41. 

one-eighth of a Roman 
mile, about 600 feet 

Eight stadia, or i,ocx> 
yards English. 















• n 



•« o 

2 ou'S 4> 0) g S 


I "si 

s > 

4) M 

•a > 






3. l|an Ir Son, ^ntns»